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FRUIT CROPS

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VEGETABLE CROPS

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PLANTATION CROPS

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LIVESTOCK

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ROOT CROPS

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FISHERIES AQUATIC AND MARINE

Goat Raising

Description

goatraisingGOAT RAISING

Goats are important to man for their meat and milk. Being small animals, goats are commonly known as "poor man's cow" because their upkeep entails only a small initial investment and correspondingly small risk of loss. Generally, goats are easy to raise, can subsist on vegetation unpalatable to other ruminants, mature early, have high fertility, capable to multiply and undergo short gestation period (can be bred as early as 8 months old). Goats in the foundation herd could yield milk five months after conception. The first carcass or kid crop can be sold in less than a year.

Production of goat meat is highly seasonal which resulted to fluctuating prices. The output is usually low during the fourth quarter of the year, and then peaks up slightly in the first quarter. Production peaks up during the second quarter then start to decline on the onset of the third quarter. The fall on the fourth quarter maybe attributed to the influx of meat substitutes during the Christmas season. The peak season coincides with the celebration of town fiestas especially in May and June. Prices are usually high during this period.

The optimum potential of goat as one of the main sources of milk and meat has not been fully tapped in the Philippines. Aside from being cheap, goat's milk is more digestible compared to cow's milk.

The goat is a clean animal and its male odor is only present during the breeding season. Female goat does not smell. Contrary to myth, goats do not eat trash. They do, however, lick the labels of tin cans to taste glue on the label's back.
(Source: Department of Agricutlure, Date accessed: 21 march 2014)

By-Products
• Manure

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management

Goat Housing

Whether on range or confined feeding, housing provisions are necessary. A goat house or shed must be built to provide shelter. Goats are afraid of rain and wetness as these make them prone to pneumonia. They also prefer sleeping in elevated flat forms like a stair type arrangement. It must be well ventilated and drained and easy to clean. Feeding racks (silage, water, mineral and concentrate) should be accessible to both animals and caretaker, preferably in the front of the aisle. Flooring should be provided and elevated at least 15 degrees to facilitate cleaning and drainage.

Separate pens should be provided for lactating and dry does, kids, growers and bucks. The buck pen should be visible to breeding does yet far enough to avoid transfer of the typical goat smell especially to lactating does when milk is to be sold.

A fenced loafing area beside the goat house must be provided (100 to 150 sqm/250 head), complete with feeding racks and water troughs to allow animals to loaf freely. Flooring of the area must be cemented to facilitate drying. Cogon and nipa as roof materials are preferred in hot and humid areas.

Ventilation is of outmost importance. Majority of pneumonia cases can be traced to excessively warm and humid interior and sudden changes in temperature. Allow a 0.5 to 1 feet clearance between floor to wall and wall to beam to create an adequate circulation and to lower draft. It is desirable to maintain an interior temperature of 28 to 30°C. It has been established that above 30°C ruminants are inhibited from eating.

Lighting may also be provided in the barns during the night. Goats consume up to 30% of the day's intake during the night when light is provided.

Fencing

Nine-eye hog wire is the cheapest and most effective fencing available locally. Posts must be staked every 2 meters. Goats are fond of pounding their feet and scraping their bodies on the fences so it must be sturdily built. Barbwire fencing requires a minimum of four strands so it becomes more costly besides making goats prone to wounds.

Selection and Mating

Does Selection Criteria

• Does should be purchased from a locality or area with similar climatic conditions;
• Native or graded does should not be less than 25 kilograms;
• Udder should be palpated for size, detection of lumps and other abnormalities;
• Teats should be uniform at length and large enough for easy milking;
• It must have a good appetite, possessing alert eyes and well formed pupils; and
• Do not buy breeders from markets.

Bucks Selection Criteria

• One year old breeder or buck that have successfully mated once is desirable;
• Acquired buck should be accompanied by pedigree records;
• It must have a good producing line based from farm records;
• Muck must come from doe with high twinning rate;
• Buck must be active and ready to breed in-heat doe; and
• Replace buck, preferably, every three (3) years.

Breeding

Does reach puberty from 4 to 18 months. Best breeding age will be 10 to 12 months, depending on desired weight. Limit yearling buck services to 25 doe services/year. Older bucks can cover up to 75/year. Buck to doe ratio is 1:25.

Breeding – Reproductive Characteristics of Goats

 Age of Puberty  4-8 months
 Cycle of type  Polyestrus
 Cycle length  18-21 days
 Duration of heat  2-3 days (secondary heat: 8-12 days after)
 Gestation period  150(+/-) 5 days
 Best breeding time  Daily during estrus

Breeding – signs of Heat or Estrus

• Mucus discharge from the vulva, causing matting of tail hair.
• Uneasiness, constant urination, lack of appetite and bleating.
• Seeks out or stays near the buck and lets herself be mounted.

When breeding, always introduce the doe to the buck, not to the doe herd particularly when bucks have not been used for a long time. It will be dangerous to mix the buck with an herd of pregnant does for they will breed indiscriminately. Two or four breedings during the heat period will suffice.

It is highly impractical if not economical to raise pure breed goats, unless the main purpose is to sell breeders. The preferred method will be to upgrade local native or grade does with pure bucks. Crossbreeds usually perform better than pure ones under local conditions. Infusion of two or more bloodlines into the native doe will elicit a better product due to hybrid vigor. Three-way crosses between the native, any of three Occidental breeds and the Nubian has produced a greatly superior animal than any of the three under our conditions.

Higher milk production should be the main consideration for it will not only mean bigger kid but also more milk for human consumption. A maximum infusion of 75% foreign bloodline must be observed to retain the natural resistance of the native. Never practice inbreeding unless fully knowledgeable in breeding techniques. On the other hand, intensive culling especially in milking herds, will largely be beneficial.

Dystocia is very common in crossing natives with large pure breeds due to the invariably large size of the unborn kids. Crossbreed birthweights of up to four (4) kilos for multiple births and up to six (6) kilos for single births have been observed while native birthweights reach only 2 to 4 kilos for multiple and single births, respectively. Thus, in crossbreeding, large native does with a minimum weight of 25 kilos or more and those that have given birth at least once, should be used. Providing human assistance during birth will also be of help in saving kids, but this should be done only when necessary.

Anestrus or failure to come in heat, is a common problem most particularly with high-producing does. Vitamin, mineral and other nutrient deficiencies, infections of the genital tract and hormone deficiencies are some of the various and implants and pregnant mare serum (PMS have been used with varying rates of success.

Routine administration of oxytocin, right after kidding and before weaning (5 days) aids in faster expulsion of the placenta, uterine fluids and in the rapid regression of the uterus. Routine Vitamin A, D and E injections to breeding herds also contribute to reproductive well-being.

Fifty percent of breeding problems can be traced to the buck used. Routine checkup of the bucks' health condition, especially of the genito-urinary tract, should be done. Preputial scraping, blood tests and sperm motility tests are some very useful procedures to follow in successful buck management. Always consult a trained veterinarian to do these tests.

Breeding – Procedures in Artificial Insemination

Keep the semen warm for it is extremely temperature sensitive and will be irrevocably damaged if improperly handled. Never allow the temperature of semen thawed in 95°F water to drop below 80°F. If at all possible, perform your insemination in a heated environment. Thoroughly pre-warm the inseminating gun before inserting the straw. If no heated facility is available, use a heating pad or hot water bottle to keep the semen and related equipment at the proper temperature before use.

Inseminate at the proper time, as most successful inseminators agree that conception rates are generally highest when breeding during the later third of standing heat. In our experience, breeding a doe approximately 6 – 10 hours before she goes out of standing heat has yielded the best results. During the main part of the breeding season and with most does, this means breeding approximately 24-30 hours after the onset of estrus.

Always deposit semen deep intracervically by measuring the depth of penetration of the breeding gun. After passing through several cervical rings, place a clean breeding sheath in the speculum alongside the gun with its tip against the back wall of the does' vagina. Compare the difference between the length of the two breeding sheaths. Ideal depth of penetration is approximately 1 ½ inches.

Use only one straw per breeding as research in goat production indicates that sperm cells introduced into the does' reproductive tract tend to form "colonies" in the mucous present in the folds of the cervix. After undergoing a short maturation process, they migrate in fairly constant number from the cervix into the uterus and ultimately on to the oviduct, where union of the egg actually occurs. Quantities of viable sperm cells sufficient for adequate fertilization should remain in the reproductive tract for up to 18 hours after the first insemination.

The use of a second straw of semen later in heat can cause a disruption in the orderly migration of mature sperm cells from the colonies already established in the cervix and actually reduces the chance of conception.

Avoid attempting to AI does who remain in standing heat longer than 48 hours for reasons not fully understood, does exhibiting extremely lengthy standing estrus generally fail to conceive when artificially inseminated. Abnormally long heats are more common early in the breeding season, and occur more frequently in some areas than others. Fortunately in most cases the condition is transitory and most does begin to exhibit more normal estrus behavior as the breeding season progresses.

Use of hormones to synchronize does, though successful and useful, may result in lowered conception rates. Many breeders have reported disappointing AI conception rates after having used hormones to induce estrus in goats. If it is necessary to synchronize a group of does in this way, wait until the first natural heat after the drug induced estrus before artificially inseminating. Be aware that the use of prostaglandins may cause erratic estrus behavior in some animals, which can persist for several months.

Deposit semen very slowly because rapid expulsion of semen from the breeding gun can damage sperm cells and cause irritation of the does' reproductive tract. Count to fifteen very slowly while depressing the plunger on the breeding gun.

Don't haul a doe in heat to have her bred via AI. If you do not have your own equipment or storage tank and must transport your does to have them bred, plan to board them several days before they are due to come into heat. It is probably preferable if you cannot breed your own does yourself to have an AI technician come to your farm to perform the insemination. You can do your own inseminating even if you do not own your own tank. Small quantities of semen can be transported and stored for a half day or longer in a stainless steel thermos bottle. Make sure that you do not screw the lid onto the thermos as possible rupture can occur as a result of nitrogen gas pressure.

For best conception rates, inseminate only does with regularly occurring heats and no history of breeding or kidding problems. Does that are difficult to settle by natural service are not good AI candidates. Proper nutritional management also pays a big role in reproductive efficiency. Does that are overly fat or thin are less than ideal prospects for AI breeding. Virgin does should present no problem so long as they weigh at least 75 lbs.

Don't attempt to AI a doe on her first heat cycle of the season – the first heat cycle of the year is often infertile and is frequently followed by a second heat 5 to 8 days later. Conception rates will usually be higher if you wait until the second or later heats to do your breeding. Likewise, conception rates may drop off if you attempt AI towards the very end of the normal breeding season.

Watch your does carefully 17 to 22 days after breeding them by AI for some reason that some does who conceive by AI experience a false heat three weeks later. Although they may exhibit otherwise typical estrus behavior, such does will seldom allow a buck to mount them. If in doubt, submit a milk or blood sample to a testing laboratory for a progesterone assay.

Keep detailed records of your AI breeding. Note such factors as color and consistency of cervical mucus, depth and relative difficulty or cervical penetration, length of standing heat both before and after inseminating, weather conditions, time required to complete the insemination, and other pertinent information. These records will often be of great help in explaining why some does settle and others did not.

Know your does. Chart the heat cycles of each of your animals on a calendar. Observe them at least three times daily during the breeding seasons for signs of estrus behavior. Note the number of hours that each does remains in standing heat, and the relative intensity of estrus activities such as flagging, fighting and mounting other does.

Observe proper sanitary procedures. Specula should be thoroughly washed and sanitized between use. Scrub the doe's external genitalia with soap and water and dry completely before inserting the speculum. Do not use iodine-based products, as iodine is spermicidal. Take care not to touch the part of the speculum or breeding sheath which is inserted in the doe's vagina.

Attend an AI school. Attendance at an AI school taught by a competent and knowledgeable instructor can increase your chances of success with AI. As with any other acquired skill, hands-on experience is the best way to develop the confidence and correct techniques necessary to use AI effectively.

Do your homework. Artificial insemination is only a tool, albeit a powerful one. To be really successful with AI, you have to do more than just put kids on the ground. Only through intelligent selection of sires compatible with the objectives of a carefully thought out breeding program can AI benefit you, the breeder, or the meat and dairy goat industry.

Care and Health Practices

Care of Dry and Pregnant Doe

If the doe is being milked, dry (stop milking) at least 1 to 2 months before kidding date. This will give her enough reserve for the next lactation.

Put all dry does in one compartment. One week before kidding, place her in a separate kidding pen. This can be predicted by swelling and discharge from the vulva, engorgement and waxing of the teats and constant laying down of the doe.

Avoid any form of noise in the kidding area. Sometimes it is necessary to help the pregnant doe during kidding, especially native does bred with pure bucks, because the kids are bigger. Dystocia or difficult delivery is common in these cases. Be sure that the presentation is right before attempting to pullout the kid. In anterior presentation, both front legs and heads are presented and in posterior presentation, both hind limbs come out at the same time. Oversized kids should be pulled out with an even, continuous pressure. In difficult cases, it is best a practicing veterinarian.

Care of the Lactating Doe and Newborn Kids

Immediately after delivery, wipe the kid's mouth, nose and body with a clean, dry cloth and massage the thoracic area to initiate breathing.

Normally, the mother does this, but sometimes the mother is too weak to do it. Be sure no mucus is clogging the airways. The kids must be able to suck within one hour. For very weak kids, feeding colostrum through a stomach tube usually produces dramatic results.

First time mother some time are reluctant to suckle their young due to udder pain caused by over engorgement of milk. Restraining the doe for the first suckling will usually relieve udder pain. If colostrum in the udder is not fully consumed by the kid, stripping (manually milking out excess) will be necessary to prevent mastitis. The placenta must come out within 24 hours from expulsion of the fetus.

Tie the umbilical cord with a sterile string and apply disinfectant. Allow the kids to suckle for the first 4 to 5 days.

If the doe is to be milked, separate the kids from the mother and start feeding using a baby bottle (8 oz. size) and refer to feeding guide for dosage.

If the doe is not to be milked, the doe can be taken out of the pen for feeding and returned to the kid three times a day and the whole night. This method will ensure greater livability to the kid by not exposing it to the elements, and proper feeding of the doe. Does weaned early (4 to 5 days) usually return to heat after 1 to 2 months.

When the doe comes into heat, introduce it to the buck, not vice-versa. Two services a day for two days is an optimum. If the doe does not conceive, heat may return in 8 to 12 days. Higher conception is accomplished in the secondary heat. If breeding is successful, milk production drops after one month and the right side of the abdomen starts to fill up.

Milking

Milking periods must be established and strictly adhered. If milking is done twice a day, e.g. 6 AM and 6 PM, the process should not be delayed or advanced. Possibly, same personnel should be used. Goats can withhold milk, so unnecessary changes in the routine should be avoided

Milk quickly and continuously

Milk let down can be initiated by washing the udder with lukewarm water and wiping with a clean towel. All milking utensils, especially the milkers' hands must be thoroughly cleaned.

Feed concentrates during milking

This serves as incentive to the goats for them to enjoy and look forward. Contrary to popular belief, properly drawn and processed goat milk has no offending smell. During milking, the buck should not be near the doe to avoid transfer of the typical goat smell to the milk.

Care of the Weanling and the Growing Kids

Place all weaned kids in a separate pen, and if possible, according to size. If male kids are to be raised for meat, castrate as early as possible, preferably within the first month. If females are to be raised for milking, check for excess teats and have them removed. Horn buds usually appear within the first to third month. De-horn when buds reach the size of a fingernail. Separate males and females at the age of four months. Goats sometimes reach puberty at this age.

Start breeding females at 8 to 10 months. Bucks can start breeding at the same age.

Care of the Breeding Buck

The breeding buck must always be confined separately but always visible to the does. The buck is the source of the typical goat smell such that direct contact with the doe must be avoided. Provide a loafing area. One to two years old buck can make 25 to 50 doe services a year, an older buck more.

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed: 21 March 2014

Breeding Farms

NAGA CITY GOAT FARM

Office: Ramaida Centrum #121 Elias Angeles St. Naga City
Farm: San Felipe, Naga City
Dr. Rufo T. Llorin Jr.
0919-362-5674/0919-550-7662/54-473 6540


ED RANCH

Farm: Cataingan, Masbate
Edwin Du
056-5821136/ 09175177777


JSJ GOAT FARM

Farm: Brgy. Caturay, Gerona, Tarlac
Mr. Jeffry Lim
0918 908 0488

Grouper/Lapu-Lapu

Description

lapu-lapuGROUPER/ LAPU-LAPU

The grouper fish is widely cultured in the pristine waters of the Philippines, where it is known as lapu-lapu. The fish is named after Cebu's chieftain, who killed Ferdinand Magellan in the Battle of Mactan. Internationally, it is known as grouper, which comes from the Portuguese word garoupa, meaning "fish." Actually, grouper is the common name for numerous members of marine fish in the sea bass family. They commonly grow to 50-100 pounds (they can reach up to 750 pounds), but most market fish are about 5 to 20 pounds. It is one of the most expensive fish in the market and is valued because of its texture and taste as well as its great potential in the aquaculture market. The international market demand for grouper is fast growing particularly in Hongkong, Japan, and Singapore. (Source: Sun Star Davao, Date accessed 21 March 2014)

 By-product

  • Fish Meal supplement

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management

Site Selection

The site should:

• Be in calm water like sheltered lagoons, coves, islets, bay, behind an island or a river mouth. This is to avoid damage caused by strong winds, waves and current.
• Have salinity ranging between 32-34 ppt.
• Have water depth not less than 3 meters during low tide.
• Have good water exchange to maintain good water quality.
• Be relatively free from any source of pollution and protected from environmental hazards such as typhoons, floods, erosions, etc. It must be accessible but secured from vandals and poachers.

Cage Specification

• A floating cage is usually composed of 4-12 compartments supported by a framework. Consider the following when putting up a cage:
• Cage frame - made of bamboo and durable enough to withstand stress caused by wave action and increased weight during culture operation. Cage     dimensions - it should be 5m x 5m x 3m x 3m x 3m x 3m.
• Maintain water column at 2.5m
• Sinkers - Use small concrete blocks as sinkers suspended by ropes, placed at the bottom of the 4 corners of the cage for rigging.
• Catwalks - Attach lumber to the framework to serve as walks.
• Floaters - Use plastic drums as floaters on each side of the cage between the bamboo pipes. Tie the drum to the cage frame using a rope 5 mm in diameter to stop the drum from drifting, especially during strong wave actions.

Cage Netting

• Nets are placed like an inverted mosquito net or hapa. Each cage is supported with polyethylene rope (5 mm) inserted along the sewed borders of the net and held using a clove hitch with overhand knot.

• Each cage should have double-layered nets to avoid loss of stock due to tearing and other mechanical damage.

Anchor

The rope length from the floater to the anchor should be the same as the water depth at high spring tide. The raft structure needs 14 concrete blocks (0.5 - 1 ton each) with 8 placed at the ebb end (ebb tide being stronger than flood tide), 4 at the flood end and 2 in the mid-section.

Shelter

Groupers need a place to hide; unlike other fishes. To provide a place for groupers to hide, use sawed-off bamboo, 5 cm in diameter and 15 cm in length (for nursery cages) and 10 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length (for grow-out cages) tied in triangular bundles and suspended in strategic areas inside the net cages.

Nursery Cage Operation

Use nursery cage for fry 2-10 cm long. Stocking rate should be 60-100 fish per cubic meter. Feeds include shrimps and/or finely chopped trash fish given at the rate of 10% of the average body weight per day. Divide the feeds equally and give 2-4 times each day.
Install a 50-watt incandescent lamp (hover type) inside the cages, about 0.5 m above the waterline at night to attract live food like mysids, copepods, and other smaller fishes.

Grow-out Cage Operation

Use a grow-out cage to stock sizes of more than 10-15 cm in total length. Stocking rate should be 30-60 fishes per cubic meter. Give trash fish at the rate of 5 percent of the average body weight per day. Divide the feeds equally and give twice a day.

Monitoring

Use a grow-out cage to stock sizes of more than 10-15 cm in total length. Stocking rate should be 30-60 fishes per cubic meter. Give trash fish at the rate of 5 percent of the average body weight per day. Divide the feeds equally and give twice a day.

Health Management

It is recognized that many diseases in fish culture are often associated with stress. Stressed fish can easily be infected with disease-causing agents and this affects growth. The following tips may minimize stress on fish and prevent disease outbreaks:

• Observe any unusual swimming behavior, especially during dawn or late afternoon. Fish gasping for air usually indicates low levels of dissolved oxygen.   Should this happen, thin-out stocks by transferring some of them into another compartment.

• Weak fish - those refusing to school with other fishes and those losing balance while swimming should be separated from healthy stocks immediately. Stocks found to have sudden loss of appetite and with red spot-like wounds on the skin and fins are likely to have a bacterial infection. Use a Povidone-iodine solution (eg. Betadine solution) at 15 parts per million for 5-10 minutes for 3 alternate days, as an effective treatment for bacterial infection. Methylene blue can also be used by swabbing. Transfer treated fish to a new compartment.

Maintain a distance of 1 meter between compartments to ensure easy and continuous water flow and maintain ideal water quality for the fish.

Harvesting

Starve the fish 24 hours before harvesting. Harvest depends on the demand of the local and export market.

Post-Harvest

• Scoop live marketable size groupers (400 g and up) from the cage. Hold grouper temporarily inside the conditioning tank and provide aeration for about 1-2 hours. Adjust water temperature gradually to 18 degrees Celsius by adding packed ice. Place 3-5 fish inside an oxygenated double-sheet plastic bag, with water at 3-5 cm or at least covering the nostrils of the fishes. Place crushed ice on top of plastic bags to maintain the water coolness during transport.

• Place plastic bags inside the styrofoam with carton cover having a tag "live fish" and then ready for transport.

• Before transporting harvested stocks a "freshwater dip", or short bath in freshwater for 2-10 minutes is advisable. The dip will not increase parasite infection and lessen the incidence of disease and mortality during transport.

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed: 21 March 2014

Hot Pepper

Description

hotpepperHOT PEPPER

Hot pepper (Capsicum Frutescens L.) or siling labuyo, is a perennial plant with small, tapering fruits, often 2-3, at a node. The fruits of most varieties are red, some are yellow purple or black. The fruits are very pungent. The flowers are greenish white or yellowish white.
(Source: Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), DOST, Date accessed 21 March 2014)

For further assitance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management

 

Production Management

Climatic and Soil Requirements

Hot pepper can be grown from low to mid elevation throughout the year. Production is best, however, during the cool, dry months of October to March in sandy loam soil.

Seedling Production

Lines sow 200-250 g of seeds in a seedbed prepared from a mixture of equal parts of animal manure, rice hull charcoal and soil. Make shallow lines spaced 10-15 cm apart. Water before and after sowing. Mulch with rice hull and straw. Provide partial shade. Water regularly. Harden the seedling one week before transplanting.

Land Preparation

For small areas, make plots 0.75-1 m wide for two-row/plot planting. In bigger areas, make furrows 0.5-0.75 m apart for single-row planting.
Apply basal fertilizer at 5-7 bags/ha 14-14-14 and 5-10 t/ha manure. Transplant at a spacing of 0.3-0.5 m between hills.

Transplanting

Hot pepper grows best under full sunlight although it can also tolerate partial shade.
Transplant raised beds 1 m wide and about 20-30 cm high.
The spacing between hills and rows is 30-50 cm with two rows in each bed.
Make holes in the beds and place a handful of compost or animal manure.
Place 1-2 seedlings in the hole and cover with soil, pressing lightly near the stem for maximum contact between roots and soil.
Water immediately after transplanting.
Hot pepper can also be grown in clay pots, cans, and plastic bags. It can be treated as an ornamental if maintained properly.

Fertilization

Hot pepper responds well to inorganic fertilizer. However, animal manure and compost are better sources of nutrients. Another alternative is to grow hot pepper around basket composts.

Irrigation

Apply water once a week or as needed. Watering is needed in container-grown plants. Mulching in both plots and containers can cut watering by at least 50%. Grasses, paper, sawdust, manure and plastic sheets can be used for mulching.
Apply water once a week or as needed. Watering is needed in container-grown plants. Mulching in both plots and containers can cut watering by at least 50%. Grasses, paper, sawdust, manure and plastic sheets can be used for mulching.

Pest and Disease Management

• The main diseases of hot pepper are bacterial wilt and viruses.

• Bacterial wilt is soil borne and difficult to control.

• Wilting in fully-grown plants is usually due to bacterial wilt.

• Grow in containers with sterilized soil instead. Viruses are systemic, so pull out and bury infected plants (mosaic, leaf curling, fern-like leaves) to prevent spread of diseases through insect vectors.

• The major insect pests of pepper are thrips, mites, armyworm, fruit fly and shoot borers.

Thrips is a problem during the dry season and can be managed by overhead irrigation.
Removing damaged fruits and shoots can manage shoot and fruit borer.

Harvesting

• Harvesting mature green or fully ripened red fruits.

• Pack in plastic crates, cartons, or bamboo crates lined with banana leaves.

• Seeds can also be extracted from the red fruits.

• Air-dry and sun-dry seeds for 3-5 days.

• Place in plastic bags or clear bottles, seal and store in a cool, dry place or inside the refrigerator.

• Label properly to indicate variety and date of harvest.

 Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed: 21 March 2014

Jackfruit

Description

jackfruitJACKFRUIT

Jackfruit scientifically known as Artocarpus heterophyllius, lam, locally known as "nangka" or "langka" is a favorite dessert of Filipinos, it is one of the most widely grown fruit crops in the Philippines. It was reported that this fruit is one of the famous in the world because it produces the largest edible fruit that weighs as much as 50kg. Many people believe that the leaves of the jackfruit tree can cure skin diseases. The bast of the tree is utilized in making rope and clothing. Cebuanos use the wood of the jackfruit tree in making excellent guitars and ukeleles, that's why jackfruit orchards are becoming increasingly popular in Cebu. 
(Source: Tekno Tulong, Date accessed 20 March 2014)

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management

 

Propagation

Jackfruit is usually propagated by seeds or by asexual propagation. Farmers who propagate by seeds should select healthy, vigorous, and disease-resistant seeds from productive mother trees.

A sexual propagation can be done by enriching or grafting. Among the grafting methods, cleft grafting appears to be the most effective as it is able to counter the devastating effects of a typhoon which usually destroys tall trees. A cleft grafted tree is high in genetic quality, grows short but strong in stature. It's branches tend to spread side wards.

jackfruit1

  1. Healthy rootstock cutback to the point of grafting.
  2. Healthy rootstock showing vertical incision. Shape its base into a 2-3cm.
  3. Scion showing wedge cut base for easy insertion.
  4. Scion inserted into the rootsock. See to it that at least one side of the graft has cambiums of both stock and scion aligned. This will ensure effective union of the graft.
  5. Graft secured firmly with a budding tape. Tie the graft with a plastic tape starting from the lower portion going up. Just apply enough pressure to facilitate union without destroying the growing portion. Too much water may hamper growth and prevent union. Cover the graft with a loose wind of plastic strip and cover further with a 1" x 10" plastic wrapper.
  6. Scion starting to grow. Plant seeds in seedboxes or tin cans. Clear and clean the field at least one year before transplanting seedlings to a permanent site. A few weeks before planting, dig holes about 60 to 80 centimeters in diameter and 40 to 50 centimeters deep. When planting, fill holes with fertile surface soil instead of subsoil dug out of the holes.

jackfruit2

Before transplanting, prune-two-thirds of the leaves of the seedlings. Cut leafy branches to prevent excessive moisture loss and take special care when transplanting because the jackfruit has a delicate root system. Also, planting distance should be no less than 10 to 12 meters between trees.

jackfruit3

Cultivate the plants. Remove all weeds within a radius of one meter around the tree. Prune trees regularly to remove unnecessary twigs and branches.

Growing seedlings need ample nitrogen fertilizer while bearing trees need regular applications of phosphorous and potash.

Fertilization and Irrigation

  1. In the absence of soil analysis, apply as basal either manure or compost at the rate of 3kgs per plant or 2 metric tons per hectare. One month fter planting, apply 100-150g ammonium sulfate per tree. After six months, apply an equal amount of 100-150g ammonium sulfate and towards the end of the rainy season. Organic fertilizer is advisable to apply around the trees. When trees start bearing fruits and during the start of the rainy season, apply 1/2kg-2kg complete fertilizer and 200g-300g muriate or potash (0-0-60) per tree. Every six months thereafter, apply complete fertilizer at the rate of 1 1/2kg-3kg per tree.
  2. Water requirement is less critical in jackfruit production; however, irrigate the farm during extreme drought.

Weeding

Periodic ring weeding and underbrush shall be done every three (3) months.

Pruning

Prune trees at two (2) years of age. Cut the top of the main stem leaving 2-3 meters above the ground to regulate the height. Apply fungicide on resulting wounds. Pruning consists of the removal of small unproductive branches as well as diseased and insect damaged ones. Since fruits are usually produced on the trunk and large branches, the removal of unwanted branches would give more light to the developing fruits.

In Thailand, a uniform system of pruning is followed, that is, by pruning the main trunk well above the bud union to induce the production of multiple branches close to the ground. Allow four or main branches to grow to carry the fruits, instead of distributing the heavy fruits on the main trunk and the smaller over to the side branches. This, system also opens the center of the tree for better light penetration and air movement.

Pests and Diseases

  1. Fruit fly - Like most fruit trees, jackfruit is vulnerable to fruit fly infestation, a most destructive pest. The fruit fly lays its eggs under the skin of the fruit and which hatch in 5-6 days. The larvae work their way into the fruit, eventually causing rot and making it unfit for market. The larva comes out of the fruit and falls to the ground to pupate in the soil. An adult lays about 100 eggs in one oviposition. To control - Wrap fruits with empty cement bags or jute sacks. Spray wrappers with pesticide to reduce fruit damage.
  2. Twig borer - Borers attack the twigs and cause the affected twigs to dry up. An adult borer is slight gray in color and about 2 cm long. To control - Cut off all affected shoots and twigs and destroy them by burning before spraying the tree with the recommended insecticides with long residual effects. Spraying showed be done twice a month depending on the degree of infestation.
  3. Another common pest is the bark borer. To control - This pest remove the dead branches where it lays its eggs. Spray the recommended pesticides and bum affected twigs and dead branches.
  4. Jackfruit is also attacked by the fungal pink disease, especially during the rainy season. To prevent its spread, spray plants with sulphur fungicide at least twice a month during rainy season. Always prune and burn severely affected branches.

Harvesting

Jackfruit bears fruit at three years old. About 10 fruits can be harvested the first time the tree bears fruit. The following are indicators of fruit ripeness:

  • When the last leaf on the stalk turns yellow;
  • The fruit produces dull, hollow sounds when tapped;
  • Its well-developed and widely spaced spines yield to moderate pressure.

The time to harvest depends on how the fruit is to be sed. If it's for home consumption, pick fruit when the rind is soft, emitting an aromatic odor, and when the leaf nearest the stalk turns yellow. At this stage, the flesh of the fruit is yellow-orange, shiny and juicy.

If you plan to sell the fruit, pick it when mature but still firm and without aroma. At this stage, the flesh is pale-yellow and crisp. Take extra care not to damage the fruit. When you cut the peduncle of the fruit with a sharp knife or sickle, be sure another person wearing hand gloves to protect his hands from spines will assist. When harvesting from tall trees, place the fruit in a sack to prevent it from falling to the ground. Tie a rope to the stalk, snap the fruit from the tree, and slowly lower the bundle to the ground.

Harvesting should be done at mid-morning to late afternoon to reduced latex flow because, at this time of the day, latex cells are less turgid. This would minimize latex stains which give the fruit an unsightly appearance. Remove the retained peduncle and unwanted water sprouts from the trunk after picking the fruit.

When handling the fruit, lay it against a railing with its stalk down to let the latex flow and coagulate. It is best to transport the fruits in single layers. Always put dried banana leaves between fruits and spread some on the container to prevent the fruits from getting bruises, scars, and breaks. Never insert a pointer stick into the fruit's stem. Many people in the rural areas believe this technique hastens ripening but this has no basis. A cut on the stem only serves as an entry point for decay-producing organisms. The fruit usually weighs from five to 15 kilogram; bigger ones weigh more. Fruit experts or pomologists grade the fruit according to size: large, at least 20kg; medium, at least 15kg but no more than 20kg; and small, at least 8kg but not more than 15kg. Another way of grading jackfruit is according to condition.

Grade No. 1 means that the fruit is fairly well-formed, free from damage by discoloration or scars, cuts, skin breaks, diseases, and insects. Grade No. 2 means that the fruit has no specific shape, though free from cuts, skin breaks, insects, and diseases.

Source: Department of Agriculture, Date accessed 20 March 2014

Lanzones

Description

lanzonesLANZONES

Lanzones (Lansium domesticum Corr.) is highly complex and varied fruit. In the Philippines, the term Lanzones covers all type or groups belonging to the species Lansium such as Paete, Camiguin, Jolo, Duku and Longkong.

Lanzones is generally grown for fruits. The fruits contains 68% edible portion consisting of, per 100 gram of edible portion, water, 84 g; carbohydrates with the little of protein and fat, 14.2 g; fiber, 0.8 g; ash, 0.6 g; Calcium (Ca), 19 mg; Potassium (K), 275 mg. It also contains vitamin B1, B2 and a little of vitamin C. The sturdy wood is also used for house posts, tool handles and furnitures. The dried peels are burned to drive the mosquitoes away. The bark is used against dysentery and malaria.
(Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 21 March 2014)

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Cultural Management

 

Favorable Growing Conditions

Fertile loam, well drained, friable with high organic matter content and slightly acidic soil is recommended for Lansium. Lansium is not recommended in sandy soil, and in soil which are alkaline. Optimum temperature for growth is 25-35°C; less than 600 m above sea level is ideal. Lansium grown in elevation higher than 600 m are generally big seeded. Relative humidity of 70-80% and 120-150 rainy days amounting to 2,000-3,000 mm per year are good for Lansium which are more or less evenly distributed except for a dry period of two months or more to stimulate flowering. Lansium has been noted to grow well in areas with distinct dry and wet conditions but are provided with irrigation.

Nursery Development

The nursery infrastructure includes sowing beds, irrigation system and plant shades.

Shading

Nursery plants are to be provided with shade that screens off sunlight by 50-60% depending on the age and size of the seedling. Newly germinated seedling and up to six (6) months should be provided 70% shading. Older seedlings are provided with 50% shade. The shading materials may include natural trees such as lanzones, rambutan, durian, acacia, banana and coconut.

Irrigation System

The nursery should be provided with a good irrigation system such as garden hoses, sprinklers, etc. Watering should be carried out every other day during dry months or as soon as the soil surface starts to dry up. Make sure that source of water of irrigation is clean and free from contaminations.

Seed preparation

Seeds from mature fruits are extracted and the flesh attached to the seeds is completely removed after soaking in the water to ferment the mucilage for 24-48 hours. The seeds are cleaned by removing the pulp or mucilage and thoroughly washed in running water. The seeds are then dried and coated by spraying with suitable fungicide to protect them from decay organism. Air dried seeds should be sown immediately as delaying sowing can result to poor germination. Seeds, however, when air-dried and placed in polybags maybe stored up to 14 days in a refrigerator, at 4-5?C. Seeds are to be sown in a mixture of sand, decayed rice hulls and ordinary garden soil on a 1:1:1 proportion. Sowing of seeds can be done in close proximity to each other and in seedbeds with 70% shade.

Seedling transplanting

After two weeks, the germinated seedlings with needle-like shoots maybe pulled out and transplanted in potting medium which are contained in plastic bags. Lansium seeds are polyembryonic and produce two or more seedlins/seeds. These seedlings sprouting from one seed should be separated and transplanted individually.
The potting medium should consists mainly of 50% garden soil mixed with 25% decaying rice hulls and 25% organic matter like decayed chicken dung. For purpose of potting, 8" x 12" plastic bags are used.

Fertilization must be carried out on monthly basis using ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) or urea (46-0-0) followed every three months with complete (14-14-14) fertilizer. Water the seedlings regularly when rain is not available to ensure fast growth so the plant can be ready for field planting or propagation in 1.5 years. The potted plants should be controlled of insect pests and diseases. Seedlings are ready for grafting in 8-10 months after transplanting under 50% shading.

Land Preparation

Before planting, plow the field 20-30 cm deep and pulverize the soil to provide fine texture.

Crop Establishment

Planting density

The recommended distance of planting lansium except duku is 6 x 6 m or a population density of 278 plants/ha. When. Planted as a companion crop of other fruit trees like coconut a lower population density is recommended. Duku, being a spreading-type is recommended at 10 x 10 m of a population of 100 plants/ha.

Planting materials

Grafted plants of 80-100 cm tall are recommended for planting. These plants are approximately 1.5 years old. Older plants of 2.5 years to 3 years mat perform better in the field.

Holing and planting

The holes are dug big enough to accommodate the ball of soil supporting the potted plants. In planting the upper level of the soil containing the plant should be about 1.0 inch above the surface of the soil to prevent the accumulating of water during rainy days.

Pruning

Pruning commences when the plant reach 120-140 cm tall. The terminal shoot is cut to a height of 80-100 cm. This induces the formation of three or more secondary trunks originating within 1.0 m from the ground. Then the newly formed trunk is bent outward to insure uniform spreading. During the immature stage, pruning is carried out to remove the following:
Shoots grown almost parallel to the main stem
Branch that grow inwardly crossing the main stems
Weak and diseased branches
Finally, the plants are top pruned to maintain a height of 12-15 ft. Mature plants are pruned after every harvest to remove the diseased and weak branches. Shoots, which grows almost parallel to the secondary stem, are top pruned to maintain the height of 15 ft.

Weed control

The base of the plants should ideally be kept weed-free by regular ring weeding using mechanical method. Cultivation of soil near the plant to control the weed is not advisable. This damages the roots on the surface. Mulching the base of the plants can be done to reduce the growth of the weeds. Weeds between rows may be suppressed by planting cover crops such as calopogonium and tropical kudzu.

Water Management

Irrigating Lanzones is basically the same as that of durian and mangosteen using sprinklers or micro sprinklers. In many orchards, irrigation facilities are laid out before planting. During the first year, plants are provided with water every other day. At the second and third years, irrigation frequency is reduced to twice a week. For mature Lansium, irrigation during the dry season has proved to stimulate growth and trigger flowering.
Irrigation can be used to advance the flowering of one to two months provided the floral initials have emerged during the preceding dry period. The inflorescence starts to emerge 7-19 days after watering. Regular irrigation during fruit development prevents the cracking of fruits. A dry spell during the fruiting stage causes serious crop losses due to fruit cracking when water stress is suddenly relived.

Harvest Management

If provided with high level of fertilization and irrigation, a 12-15 years old Lansium tree may have a maximum yield about 300 kg/tree/year. The largest bunch weighs up to 3 kg, each bunch produces 20-30 fruits.

Flower buds emerge in April to June, fruits are harvested six months later. Fruit maturity begins when the skin color turns from greenish to brownish. The bottom portion of the fully developed fruit, located at the top of an inflorescence, starts to turn frown first. When the last fruit of the bunch turns brown, the whole bunch can be harvested as all fruits are now physiologically mature. Sweetness increases as maturity advances after harvest. Fruits are harvested by climbing the tree and cutting the mature bunches with knives or pruning shears. Care must be taken not to injure the point at which the bunch is attached to the tree because future inflorescence may be borne there later. It is better to use ladders rather than climbing the tree to minimize damage to dormant flower buds. The use of sharp knife is preferred. Harvesting of the fruit is done when 90% or more of the fruits in the cluster becomes mature turning from dull green to dull brown. Harvest by carefully cutting the basal end of the stem of the cluster without damaging the stem or branch. It is also advisable to harvest the fruits in the afternoon when there is no rain. Pack the newly harvested fruits in sturdy containers of 20 to 80 kg capacity to prevent bruising.

At the packaging house the fruits are sorted, cleaned, dried, graded and packed in proper containers with the cushion materials to reduce injury during handling and transport. Newly harvested fruits left one or two nights at room temperature gives the best quality fruits.

Delayed maturity among fruits in the same bunch is a problem in Lanzones production. Fruits should be harvested hen more than 70% of the fruit in a bunch reaches maturity (i.e. the fruit is fully expended with yellow skin). Harvesting young fruits may result to low quality. To insure sweetness and quality of fruits duku is harvested only when ripe. Using ethrel, calcium carbide and smoke as ripening agents adversely affect fruit quality. To extend shelf life to two weeks, fruits should be kept at 10?C with relative humidity of 85-90%. Keeping ripe fruits in lower temperature will change the skin color from yellow to brown.
Some varieties of Lanzones start to bear fruits in 5 years after planting. It is recommended that during the first year of fruiting; only 5.0 kg/tree should be allowed to develop. The fruit is increased yearly as shown in the table below:

Assumptions:
Planting of 2.5 - 3.0 years old LPM grafted Lanzones
Population of Lanzones at 200 trees/ha

 Years after plantingKg/TreeKg/Ha
5 5 1.000
6 15 3,000
7 30 6,000
8 50 10,000
9 75 15,000
10 100 20,000
11 120 24,000
12 135 27,000

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 21 March 2014