Mussel farming does not require highly sophisticated techniques compared to other aquaculture technologies. Even un-skilled laborers, men, women, and minors can be employed in the preparation of spat collectors as well as harvesting. Locally available materials can be used, hence minimum capital investment is required. The mussel harvest can be marketed locally and with good prospects for export.

The cultivation of mussels has taken various forms in different countries of the world. However, as in all farming procedures, it requires careful consideration of environmental, ecological and seasonal factors, in order to ensure proper growth and survival of the stock through harvest. (Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 25 March 2014)


  • Shell

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Cultural Management


Criteria for Site Selection

Site Selection
In prospecting sites for mussel cultivation, well-protected or sheltered coves and bays are preferred than open un-protected areas. Sites affected by strong wind and big waves could damage the stock and culture materials and, therefore, must be avoided. Another important consideration is the presence of natural mussel spatfall. Areas serving as catchment basins for excessive floodwaters, during heavy rains, would not be selected. Flood waters would instantly change the temperature and salinity of the seawater, which is detrimental to the mussel.
Sites accessible by land or water transportation are preferred so that culture materials and harvests can be transported easily.

Water Quality
Areas rich in plankton, usually greenish in color, should be selected. Water should be clean and free from pollution. Sites near densely populated areas should not be selected in order to avoid domestic pollution. In addition, the culture areas should be far from dumping activities of industrial wastes and agricultural pesticides and herbicides. Waters too rich in nutrients, which m cause dinoflagellate blooms and render the mussels temporarily dangerous for human consumption, causing either gastro-intestinal troubles or sometimes paralytic poisoning, should be avoided. Water physio-chemical parameters are also important factors to be considered. The area selected should have a water temperature ranging from 27–30 °C, which is the optimum range required for mussel growth. Water salinity of 27–35 ppt is ideal. A water current of 17–25 cm per second during flood tide and 25–35 cm per second at ebb-tide should be observed. Favourable water depth for culture is 2 m and above, both for spat collection and cultivation

Bottom Type
Bottom consisting of a mixture of sand and mud has been observed to give better yields of mussel than firm ones. It also provides less effort in driving the stakes into the bottom. Shifting bottoms must be avoided.

Rate of Growth

The average growth rate of green mussels is 1cm a month, allowing it to reach the marketable size of 4-5 cm in 4-6 months. However, growth rates vary with the availability of food in the water. They can reach the length of 150 mm or more but adults generally average 50-60 mm in length


"Tahong" feeds by filtering the seawater around it. The foods are the plankton and phytoplankton present in the water. They eat by filtering a small amount of water, thus they are called filters-feeders (ciliary-mucoid feeders).

Culture Methods

Mussel culture, as practiced in many countries, is carried out by using a variety of culture methods based on the prevailing hydrographical, social and economic conditions.

Bottom Culture
Bottom culture as the name implies is growing mussels directly on the bottom (Fig. 1). In this culture system a firm bottom is required with adequate tidal flow to prevent silt deposition, removal of excreta, and to provide sufficient oxygen for the cultured animals. Mussel bottom culture is extensively practiced in The Netherlands, where the production of seeds is completely left to nature. If the natural spatfall grounds are unsatisfactory for growing, the seedlings are transferred by the farmer to safer and richer ground or to his private growing plots, until the marketable size is attained. Natural conditions control the quality and quantity of food in the water flowing over the farming plots. Marketable mussels are fished from the plots and undergo cleansing before being sold. This method requires a minimum investment. Disadvantages, however, of this type of culture is the heavy predation by oyster drills, starfish, crabs, etc. Also, siltation, poor growth and relatively low yields per unit culture area.


Intertidal and Shallow Water Culture
The culture methods that fall under this category are usually practiced in the intertidal zone. The culture facilities are set in such a way that the mussels are submerged at all times. Culture methods are:

Hanging Method
The process starts with the preparation of the spat collectors or cultches. Nylon ropes or strings, No. 4, are threaded with coco fibre supported by bamboo pegs or empty oyster shells at 10 cm intervals. These collectors are hung on horizontal bamboo poles at 0.5 m apart (Fig.2). A piece of steel or stone is attached at the end of the rope to prevent the collector to float to the surface. Setting of collectors is timed with the spawning season of the mussels. Spats collected are allowed to grow on the collectors until marketable size.
Other materials utilized as collectors are rubber sheets and strips from old tires.
Mussels are harvested by taking out from the water the ropes or strings and bringing them to the shore on a banca. The same collectors can be re-used after being cleaned of fouling organisms. Harvested mussels are cleansed of the dirt and mud by dipping the collectors several times in the water. The process maybe laborious, but the ease in harvesting and availability of local materials for culture purposes makes it very adaptable under local conditions.


Tray Culture
Tray culture of mussels is limited to detached clusters of mussels. Bamboo or metal trays, 1.5 m × 1 m × 15 cm sidings are used (Fig. 4). The tray is either hang between poles of the hanging or stake methods or suspended on four bamboo posts.






Wig-wam Culture
The wig-wam method requires a central bamboo pole serving as the pivot from which 8 full-length bamboo poles are made to radiate by firmly staking the butt ends into the bottom and nailing the ends to the central pole, in a wigwam fashion. The stakes are driven 1.5 m apart and 2 m away from the pivot. To further support the structure, horizontal bamboo braces are nailed to the outside frame above the low tide mark (Fig. 5). Spats settle on the bamboos and are allowed to grow to the marketable size in 8–10 months.
Mussels are harvested by taking the poles out of water, or in cases that there are plenty of undersized bivalves, marketable mussels are detached by divers.



Rope-Web Culture
The rope-web method of mussel culture was first tried in Sapian Bay, Capiz, in 1975 by a private company. It is an expensive type of culture utilizing synthetic nylon ropes, 12 mm in diameter. The ropes are made into webs tied vertically to bamboo poles. A web consists of two parallel ropes with a length of 5 m each and positioned 2 m apart. They are connected to each other by a 40 m long rope tied or fastened in a zigzag fashion at an interval of 40 cm between knots along each of the parallel ropes (Fig. 6). Bamboo pegs, 20 cm in length and 1 cm width are inserted into the rope at 40 cm interval to prevent sliding of the crop as it grows bigger.
In harvesting, the rope webs are untied and the clusters of mussels are detached.
The method is laborious and expensive, but the durability of the ropes which could last for several years might render it economical on the long run. However, the effect of the culture method on the culture ground is detrimental as gradual shallowing of the culture area has been observed up to the point that the areas become no longer suitable for mussel farming.


"Bouchot" Culture
"Bouchot" culture is mainly undertaken in France. This is also called the "pole culture" or stake culture. The poles, used are big branches or trunks of oak tree, 4–6 m in length, which are staked in rows, 0.7 m apart on soft and muddy bottoms of the intertidal zone during low tide.
Mussel seeds are collected on coco-fibre ropes which are stretched out horizontally on poles. Young adults, 3–5 mm in size are placed in long netlon tubes (10 m in length) and attached around the oak poles in a spiral fashion, until marketable size.

Raft Culture
Mussel raft culture has been practiced in Spain for a long time. Mussel seeds that settle freely on rocks or on rope collectors are suspended from a raft. When the weight of the bivalves on a given rope exceeds a certain limit, the rope is taken out and again distributed over a greater length until marketable size. It is a continuous thinning of the mussel stock to provide ample space to grow. Marketable shellfish are detached from the rope, purified in basins before marketing.

The raft may be an old wooden boat with a system of outrigger built around it. Other kinds of rafts could be a catamaran-type boat carrying some 1000 rope hangings, or just an ordinary plain wooden raft with floats and anchors (Fig. 7). Floats can be made of plastic, wood, oil drums, etc. The raft are transferred from one place to another using a motor boat.
Production of mussels from this type of culture is high. From a catamaran-type raft with 1,000 rope,6–9 m in length, about 4,666–5,333 MT of marketable mussel can be produced.
Advantages of this type of culture are: reduce predation, utilization of planktonic food at all levels of water, and minimum siltation.


Long Line Culture
Long-line culture is an alternative to raft culture in areas less protected from wave action. A long-line supported by a series of small floats joined by a cable or chain and anchored at the bottom on both end is employed. Collected mussel spats on ropes or strings are suspended on the line. The structure is fairly flexible.

Mussel Trasplantation to New Sites

Transplantation of young mussels from natural spawning grounds to sites with favourable conditions for growth is practiced in numerous countries as mentioned earlier. In the Philippines, however, mussel transplantation to new sites is being encouraged to develop new areas for mussel culture, due to various reasons. Major reasons are: rampant pollution of some existing mussel areas, urbanization growth near mussel farms and competitive use of lands.
Mussels to be transplanted could be breeders or young adults. Important points to be considered are: Conditions from natural spawning areas must be almost similar to the new area, mussels on original collectors showed better survival than those detached, and in transporting the mussel avoid being exposed to heat and freshwater.


Harvesters should be aware of the stress caused during the harvesting process. In harvesting mussels special care is needed. Pulling them or using a dull scraper may tear the byssal thread. This will result in loss of moisture after harvest or cause physical damage causing early death of the bivalve. The right procedure is to cut the byssal thread and leave it intact to the body. Exposure to sun, bagging and transport also increases the stress of the mussels.

Transportation and Marketing

The site should be near the market so that mussels can easily be transported there for sale because "tahong" meat is highly perishable and should be consumed as soon as possible after harvesting.

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 25 March 2014




Okra or Lady's Finger, which is botanically known as Hibiscus esculentus L. or Abelmochus esculentus L. Moench, is also known as saluyot a bunga (Ilocano) and kaluyot (Ifugao). It is a popular and common vegetable in the market. It is also an indispensable component of a Filipino dish called pinakbet.

It is widely grown all over the country throughout the year because of its resistance to either drought or waterlogging. It is mainly grown for its young immature fruits which are consumed raw, or cooked (fried,broiled,boiled, or blanched). It is common ingredient in soup and sauces. The fruit can be dried or picked. The leaves are sometimes use as spinach and the seeds as a substitute for coffee. (Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 25 March 2014)

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Cultural Management


Land Preparation

Choose an elevated area with adequate source of water during dry season. Okra thrives well in sandy loam, loam or clay soil with pH of 5.8-8.0

  1. Broadcast organic fertilizer or compost before plowing the area.
  2. For sandy loam soil, plow and harrow once.
  3. For clay loam soil, plow and harrow once if the soil is moist.
  4. However if the soil is cloddy, harrow 2-3 times to attain good soil tilth. Set furrows at 75 cm apart for wet season and 100 cm for dry season planting.

Crop Establishment

System of Planting

  1. If the furrowed soil is moist, take advantage of the moisture content of the soil.
  2. Drill 2-3 seeds per hill in the furrows at a distance of 30 cm and cover the seeds with 3.0 cm depth of soil.
  3. Then press lightly to prevent excessive loss of moisture. This system of planting, which is usually practiced by farmers favors deeper root penetration of seedlings and avoids the early emergence of weeds.
  4. The common practice is planting the seeds before irrigating the field, causing weed seeds to germinate faster than the okra seeds, resulting in more labor input in weeding. A 1000m2 area requires 1 kg of seeds.
  5. During rainy season, plant the seeds on raised beds or at the ridge of furrows to prevent the plants from water logging in case of flush floods.

Nutrient Management

For vigorous growth of okra and to prolong the productive period, follow the fertilizer management in Table 2. Apply foliar fertilizer late in the afternoon or early in the morning after the dew on the plants have evaporated to avoid burning effect on the leaves and stems.

Table 2. Fertilizer Requirement for Okra Production

Organic fertilizer/compost 100 kg before plowing basal
14-14-14 20 kg at planting basal/broadcast
14-14-14 20 kg at 42 DAE sidedress
Urea 10 kg at 28 DAE sidedress
Foliar fertilizer Follow manufacturer's recommendation 70,84,98 & 112 DAE Spray on foliage

Water Management

If the crop is planted in moist soil and was not irrigated after planting, irrigate the area at 14-21 DAE just after hilling-up. At such stage, the water will easily subside in the soil and the roots will be forced to pursue the water, favoring longer and deeper root penetration.
In light textured soils, irrigate or water at weekly interval. During dry season, irrigate 10-5 times for the entire period of production.

Pest Management

Okra is tolerant to most insect pests specifically during wet season because of the profuse growth of foliage, but diseases are common because of the wet–warm condition of the environment. However, during summer or second crop, leafhopper is the most damaging pest with occasional diseases. These can be managed using the suggested biological and remedial control measures presented in Table 3. If there are pest and disease outbreaks, refer to the suggested chemical control in Table 4.

Insect Pests and Diseases

  1. Cotton stainer and leafhopper are the major insect pests.
  2. Do not remove all weeds. These weeds serve as alternate host to friendly insects.
  3. Plant strong scented crops such as marigold, lemon grass, and kutsai to repel insect pests.
  4. Use insecticides only as last defense.


  1. Prune and burn leaves infected with diseases like Cercospora leafmold to prevent or minimize their spread.
  2. Prune basal leaves and lateral branches.
  3. Spray with compost tea
  4. Plant in nematode-free areas.

Harvest Management

  1. Harvest young pods that are tender, snappy and about 10-12cm long.
  2. Pick the pods early in the morning.
  3. Sort and grade pods according to size.
  4. Market the pods immediately.

Seed Production

Polination and Isolation

  1. Okra is predominantly a self-pollinated crop but cross-pollination occurs from 4% to 45% depending on variety.
  2. Bes and flies pollinate okra but not wind.
  3. Maintain an isolation distance of 200m for certified seed and 400m for breeder seed.

Crop Inspection and Roguing

  1. Inspect the crop regularly throughout the growing period.
  2. Three inspections are recommended for certified seeds:
  3. One month after emergence, check for leaf size, shape and color, general habit and vigor.
  4. At flowering and podding stages, check for shape and color of flowers, fruit size, shape and color and number of ridges in pods.
  5. At first maturity, check for fruit size, shape and color, late maturity and unproductive plants.


  1. Seeds mature 120-150 days after planting or depending on variety.
  2. Harvest 2-3 times since the basal and apical pods do not mature all at the same time.
  3. Pods turn leathery brown in color at maturity.


  1. Put harvested pods in canvas matting and sun dry for 2-3 days until pods become brittle.
  2. Thresh pods to extract the seeds and clean by winnowing or using air-screen cleaner.
  3. Sort out or remove blackened seeds, seeds with molds, and small unfilled seeds.
  4. Dry clean seeds gradually under the sun for 4-5 days to lower the moisture content.


  1. For home use, pack the seeds in a thick plastic or paper envelopes and place them in large aluminum cans or large-mouth jars lined at the bottom with charcoal, lime or silica gel.
  2. Seal the package well.
  3. Place the seeds in a cool, dry place.
  4. For large volume, pack the seeds in thick plastic or aluminum foil and seal well.
  5. Keep the seeds in a cool and dry place or storage area. The drier are the stored seeds and the cooler is the storage area, the longer is the life of the seeds.

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 25 March 2014




Bulb onion (Allium ceipa L.), locally known as "sibuyas", is probably the most indispensable culinary ingredient in the world. It is a favorite seasoning, and its pungent aroma and sharp taste makes it an ideal for spice for meat, salads and
vegetable dishes. It is also used to cure a wide array of physiological disorders such as cough, obesity, insomnia, hemorrhoid, and constipation. There are two types of bulb onion grown in the Philippines, the yellow and the red onion. The yellow varieties grown for the traditional market are either the granex (flat) or the grano (round) type, short day type, short day onions. Yellow granex hybrids and Superex are among the good varieties tested in the Philippines. The red varieties, on the other hand, are produced because of their long storage life. Strains of Red Creole and Red Pinoy are among the popular varieties being grown.
(Source: PCARRD-DOST, Date accessed 25 March 2014)

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Cultural Management


Climatic and Soil Requirements

Bulb Onions grow well in friable and well-drained loam soil with good water holding capacity and pH between 6 & 7.
For best growth and bulb quality, onion requires cooler weather during the early stages of growth and a dry atmosphere with moderately high temperature for bulb development & maturation. Planting can be done as early as October (yellow onions) to as late as January (red onions).

Seedling Production

A 1-ha production area requires 5 kg seeds. A 300-500 m2 seedbed produces enough transplants for one ha/ Prepare beds 1 m wide & incorporate animal manure and rice hull.. Line sows 3-5 kg. seeds in rows set across the bed 7-10 cm apart. Distribute seeds thinly and evenly to control damping off. Cover the seeds lightly with compost and mulch with rice straw or grass clippings. Maintain adequate soil moisture. Protect the seedbed against direct sunlight and rain with nylon net or removable plastic tunnels. Reduce watering and expose seedlings to full sunlight one week before transplanting.

Land Preparation

One month prior to land preparation, apply about 30 cm layer of rice hull over the entire field & burn for about two weeks. Incorporate burnt rice hull during land preparation. Burnt rice hull reduces occurrence of weeds & diseases & improves soil texture.

Land preparation is done one month prior to transplanting. The use of tractor-driven implement requires 1-2 plowing & harrowing operations. Apply animal manure at 10-15 t/ha prior to bed preparation. Beds 1 m wide are recommended.


Transplant seedlings 4-6 weeks after sowing. Gently uproot the seedlings to prevent root damage. Plant at a distance of 15 cm between rows & 3-5 cm between transplants can also be practiced. Use markers for proper spacing & to facilitate transplanting. After marking, use dibbles to make holes. Plant deep enough but not too deep. Care must be taken so as not to damage the basal portion of the plant. Place the white portion of the plant below the soil surface. Press the soil firmly around the basal portion. Irrigate the field before and after transplanting.


In the absence of soil analysis, a 1-ha production area requires 8.5-11.4 bags of ammonium sulfate (21-0-0), 6.6-26.7 bags super phosphate (0-18-0) and 2-4 bags muriate of potash (0-0-60).

Apply all of 0-18-0 & half of 21-0-0 & 0-0-60 as basal fertilizer. Side-dress remaining 21-0-0 & 0-0-60 at 30, 45 & 60 days after transplanting. High nitrogen rates tend to shorten storage life of onions. Combine herbicide application with hand weeding to produce a good quality crop.


Bulb onions require adequate moisture for steady, continuous & desirable growth. Depending on soil types, irrigation varies between 4 & 7 days. Stop irrigation 2-3 weeks before harvest, or when 20-30% of the tops fold over. The last irrigation should be a light one.

Pest and Disease Management

Purple blotch (Alternaria porri), leaf blight (Botrytis spp.), white-tip disease (Phytophthora porri), and downy mildew (Peronospora destructor). Regulate humidity within the field through proper irrigation. Eliminate debris from previous crop. Spray compost tea (compost tea is prepared by fermenting rice compost for 10-14 days. The effluent is sprayed to control foliar diseases). Remove infected leaves. Practice crop rotation.Pink root (Pyrenochaeta terrestris). Practice soil solarization. Use resistant varieties.

Bacterial soft rot (Erwinia carotovora), neck rot (botrytis allii), & onion smut (Uroccystis cepulae). Harvests only mature bulbs. Maintain good air circulation during curing, packing & storage. Practice crop rotation.

Sour skin (Pseudomonas cepacia) & slippery skin (P. alliicola). Use furrow irrigation. Incorporate copper sulfate at the last fertilization & fungicide application.

Thrips (Thrips tabaci), army worm (Spodoptera exigua), cutworm (Argotis spp.), & leafminer (Liriomyza spp.) Use overhead irrigation & high pressure spray of water & insecticidal soap solution. Remove badly infested leaves. Spray hot pepper extract, or spread wood ash to control army worm & cutworm. To control leafminer, spray chlorox solution (1:10 commercial chlorox & water) & rinse one hour later with water. Manage weeds properly to maintain sufficient population of natural enemies.


Harvest when the tops begin to fold over. Pull mature plants/bulbs manually from the soil.


Cure harvested bulb for 10-14 days in a sunny, well-ventilated area. Align onions so that the leaves of one onion cover the bulb of another. Clip dried leaves 1.5 inches from the stem and remove all roots. Grade bulbs according to size & quality. Pack in jute or net sacks for storage and/or immediate disposal.

Source: Department of Agriculture, Date accessed 25 March 2014




Oysters have been gathered from the wild for food long before scientific farming of the organism began. This bivalve is considered as one of man's most nearly balanced natural food. It is a cheap source of protein and contains substantial quantities of all minerals and vitamins essential to the human diet. About 18% of the protein requirement, more than 50% of calcium and phosphorus, and all iodine and iron needed by an adult Filipino can be supplied by 200g of oyster meat. (Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 25 March 2014)

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.


  • Shell

Cultural Management

Site Selection

During culture period the oyster suffer from high mortality due to freshwater run-off brought about by heavy precipitation, adverse weather condition and abundance of fouling organism that are sometimes observed on collectors even prior to attachment of spats. These are some of the risks in oyster farming and to avoid these problems. It is necessary to conduct proper site selection for oyster cultivation. In general, a viable oyster farming ground should have the following characteristics:

  • Water depth should ne 1.5-2.5m for traditional and at least 5.0m for non-traditional culture methods.
  • Water salinity level is about 17-20 ppt and water temperature from 27-32 °C for faster growth.
  • The area is not subjected to excessive flooding/freshwater run-off, which causes as mortality
  • The site must be protected from strong currents and big waves. There should however, be moderate current for good water exchange to prevent build-up of decaying materials
  • The site must be non-shifting or soft and muddy bottom to minimize siltation
  • Oyster beds should be free from predators and other natural enemies (borers, starfishes, crabs, etc.)
  • There should be adequate cheap materials for cultch bamboo and empty oyster shells for spat collection.
  • Presence of indigenous species of spawners to ensure adequate seed supply
  • Materials for the farm structures should be readily available in the area
  • Site should be accessible and near to market outlets.

Culture Techniques

Four methods of oyster culture are practised in the Philippines; broadcast (sabong), stake (tulos), lattice and hanging (bitin, sampayan, horizontal, and tray) methods.

Broadcast ("sabog") method. The broadcast method is the most simple and primitive method and it is adopted in areas with firm enough bottoms to support the collectors. Empty oyster shells, stones, logs and tin cans are scattered over the selected area where natural setting occurs. Oyster spats are grown to the commercial size on the collectors. The advantage of the method is the low investment required, whereas the major disadvantages are that it can be used only in coastal areas with firm bottoms and shallow waters, high mortalities due to silt and predation, and difficulty in harvesting.

Stake Method. The stake method is usually used in areas with relatively shallow waters and soft muddy bottoms. The main material used in this culture system is bamboo poles (5–9 cm in diameter), however other rigid poles such as split coconut trunks and tree branches are often used. The stakes are driven into the bottom in rows and spaced 0.5 m apart. The tip of the stake extends to the high water level, due to the fact that oysters can survive and grow in the intertidal zone. The bamboo poles provide a clear surface to which the oyster larvae settle after their pelagic phase. Culturists often increase the attachment surface by adding horizontal bamboo sections or by clipping empty oyster shells or other hard materials to the stakes.This culture method is commonly used in Binakayan in Cavite, Binloc in Dagupan, Binmaley in Pangasinan and in Abucay in Bataan. The main advantage of this method compared to the broadcast one is that spat mortality is greatly reduced, and growth rate and production per unit area are increased. The disadvantages are that predators such as crabs, starfish, and burrowing snails can easily crawl up the stake and reach the oysters, the high cost of bamboo poles if not locally available and the relatively short life-span of the poles (1–2 years).

Latice Method. In this method bamboo splits are used to construct a lattice which is held together with galvanized wire or monofilament nylon twine. The splits are spaced about 15–30 cm apart and usually one lattice unit comprises 10–16 splits, which can be easily handled by one operator. This structure can be positioned in a great variety of ways, either horizontally or vertically. In the fence style the lattice is stuck on the bottom or supported by bamboo poles. It can also be mounted on rocks or suspended in the water column when mounted on long bamboos or empty drums. The above method is popular due to a number of advantages: the lattice can be used alone or in groups; collection and fattening of oysters occur efficiently, and harvesting is simple.

Hanging Method. Another effective and practical practice is the hanging method. Empty oyster shells or coconut shells are used as collectors. These are strung together on a synthetic rope and held 10 cm apart by spacers, such as bamboo tubes or knots made on the twine. Often collector shells are not spaced during the spatting season but are restrung with spacers during the grow-out phase. Usually each collector measures from 1–2 m depending upon the depth of the water. Variations of the hanging method are being used in the Philippines. In the bitin or inhitin variation the collectors are fastened on a bamboo platform or fence with bamboo posts attached horizontally near the high-tide level. The collectors are spaced at regular intervals of 25–30 cm. In the sampayan or long-line variation four or more parallel lines, approximately 20 m long and 20 cm apart, are strung between two bamboo poles. The cultches are fixed at regular intervals on the above lines. In the tray method, bamboo trays are used to hold the collectors. Rafts made of 5–6 bamboo poles are also employed. The rafts are moored to the four corner posts with enough slack to allow the raft to float at different water levels. The hanging collectors are fastened 30–60 cm apart. During the harvesting process, the collectors are merely untied from the bamboo poles and hauled to a raft or small boat.
The advantages of the hanging method are many, such as the high productivity per unit area and no mortality from silt and crawling predators. Disadvantages include the cost of materials (rope, bamboo, etc.), and the requirement of floats, anchors and anchor lines if the raft system is used.

General Farm Management

Once decided on the farming method and when the oyster spats have settled on the collectors, maintenance of the farm is necessary and this consists of the following procedure:

  • Transportation and thinning-out prevents overcrowding and enables more uniform growth so that the farmer will be able to estimate his harvestable crop
  • Adding additional buoys whenever necessary. As oysters grow, ropes get heavier and additional buoys must be provided to keep the bamboo framework above water and prevent the ropes from sinking to bottom
  • Protecting the oysters from predators and getting rid of parasites, pests and silt. These fouling organisms reduce yield by crowding or smothering newly settled spats and slow down the movement of water and transport of food. Predator like crabs, sea urchin, oyster drills should be inspected and removed by hand while sponges, annelids and barnacles are scrap-off with knife
  • Replacement of pegs. The grow out rope should be inspected regularly to see if the pegs should be replaced. If necessary additional pegs may be provided to support the entire oyster clusters.


Oyster is harvested before the spawning period when they are about 2.5 to 3 inches long, meat is flat, full rounded, bulging and creamy in appearance and when they are very rich in glycogen, a growth period of 8-12 months. They are best gathered in the month of March, April and May or before spawning period. Oyster need to be cleansed (depurated) prior to marketing because they harbor a lot of disease-causing organism by transferring or hauling rafts in cleaner and deeper areas for natural washing. Oyster is depurated mechanically by submerging/soaking them in clean running water for at least a week before they are hauled, cut and sold. If oysters are to be stored for some time they keep best at a temperature of 1°C or 34°F.


Oyster are sold with their shells, shucked or salted form like into "bagoong" or "guinamos". The unshelled oyster is sold by "kaing" direct from the farm, and retail in the market.

Problems and Constraints

Poor sanitary quality and limited demand are probably the major reasons for the failure of oyster farming to expand rapidly. Due to the former constraint the Philippine oyster export market is practically non existent.
Other problems in this culture system range from fouling organisms (eg. ascidians and algae) to siltation. However, these constraints can be avoided by correct management and by the adoption of the suitable culture technique for a given area.

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 25 March 2014




Papaya (Carica papaya Linn.), originated from tropical America and is considered as one of most important fruit crops in the Philippines because of its great economic potential. The fruit is cylindrically long, pear shaped or round, it is orange to orange-red, sweet and juicy when ripe. Unripe papaya makes for a good concoction of vegetable stew, salad or pickle. The fruit is rich in Vitamins A and C, iron, calcium, protein, carbohydrates and phosphorous. Papaya produces latex which contains papain – an enzyme that breaks protein. Papain has been commonly of use to the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Papain is used for cleansing lotions, facial creams and toothpastes.
A study conducted by the University of Indonesia discovered that glycoside, an organic compound that can be extracted from ripe papaya seeds, reduces fertility among men. This breakthrough is being pursued to provide an alternative contraceptive method for men. Furthermore, a new scientific finding reveals that papaya could be an effective remedy for cancer. (Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 25 March 2014)

For Prices and Market Trends, you may visit the Agriculture and Fisheries Market Information System.

For Cost and Returns, you may visit the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.

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Cultural Management


Soil and Climatic Requirements

Papaya can grow on any type of soil that is not poorly drained nor easily dries up. But the most suitable site is one that has light, well-drained soils with rich organic matter, readily available nutrients, and soil pH of 6.0-6.5. The ideal daily temperature for papaya to have sturdy growth is 21o-33oC. Rainfall should be evenly distributed over the entire growing season. A minimum annual rainfall of 1,200 mm is sufficient if soil conditions are favorable and water conservation is practised. The area should be relatively free from strong winds. Windbreaks such as giant ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) or madre de cacao (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud.) may be planted around the orchard to protect the plants but the papaya plants should be exposed to full sunlight. Papaya plants may grow from sea level to elevations of 2,100 m but lower altitudes are most suitable.

Land Preparation and Planting

Land preparation for papaya orchard is similar to other upland crops. First clear the fields; then plow and harrow alternately about 2 to 3 times to kill weeds and provide good internal drainage. The distance of planting papaya ranges from 2 to 3 meters depending on the variety.

Papaya plants are usually planted by direct seedling in the field. Place 5 or more seeds in each hole; then cover with ¼ inch of soil. When fresh seeds are used, seeds will germinate in 10 to 14 days after planting. Seed germination is better and faster if the gelatinous envelope (sarcotestae) surrounding the seed is removed by means of the fingers. In some cases, seedlings are started in the nursery by sowing seeds in seed plots or individual containers such as in cans or plastic bags.

Sow 3 to 4 seeds per container. Use sterilized soil to avoid nematode infestation and damping-off. Seedlings in the nursery should be grown under full sunlight to produce vigorous and hardy seedlings. Care should be taken not to disturb the root system. Constant watering is essential until plants are well-established. Seedlings are transplanted when there are 3 to 4 leaves.


Thin papaya seedlings in the field 4 to 6 weeks after emergence. Leave only 3 of the strongest seedlings in each hole. Save plants that are spaced far enough from one another to allow minimum competition for sunlight and nutrients.
The second and final thinning in the field should be done as soon as flowers appear. This is usually 4 to 6 months after seed germination. At this stage, leave one tree seedling per planting hole. In plantation where female trees are grown, some pollinating trees of either male or hermaphrodite forms should be preserved during the thinning process. Allow one male plant to grow for every 15 to 20 female trees for pollination purposes.

Pest and Disease Management

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Pest and Disease Management

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Pest and Disease Management

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Pest and Disease Management

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Pest and Disease Management

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