Peanut, or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), is a species in the legume family (Fabaceae) known by many local names, including earthnuts, ground nuts, goober peas and monkey nuts; the last of these is often used to mean the entire pod.

Peanut has been a popular crop in the Philippines. It is considered one of the major field legumes grown by farmers but its production has been low and erratic. Among the provinces in the Philippines, the top producers of peanut are Isabela, Pangasinan, La Union, Quirino, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Aurora, Albay and Iloilo. However, the Cagayan Valley region produced almost half of the country's total peanut production.

In the Philippines, peanut can be grown throughout the year provided inputs, especially the water requirement are adequately available. In general, dry season crop (October-January) gives higher yields and beans of better quality than the rainy season crop.
(Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 26 March 2014)

For Cost and Returns, you may visit the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management


Land Preparation

Peanut requires a well-prepared field to attain good seed emergence. Thorough land preparation is also necessary for proper development of pods and effective weed control. Plow and harrow the field 2-3 times at an interval of 7 days. Each harrowing consists of 2 passing.
In dry season planting, straight furrows are made at a distance of 50 cm from higher elevation of the field going down to the lower elevation.

Seedbed Preparation

A well-cultivated soil allows easy penetration of the peg and development of the pods. Plowing the field 15-20 cm deep will completely cover the plant residues and reduce losses from stem and pod disease caused by Sclerotioum rolfsii. About two to three alternate plowings and harrowing will be sufficient to put the soil in good tilt for planting.

Crop Establishment

Seed Treatment

Only full mature seeds from recommended varieties with high germination rate and vigor, that are free of weed seeds and other foreign materials

Peanut is planted as soon as the furrows are made, probably early in the morning or late in the afternoon. Planting shelled peanut seeds is the standard practice but some farmers use the old practice of planting unshelled pods. A 50-cm row spacing gives the highest bean yield. However, for convenience and relative ease of weeding, cultivation and spraying without significantly affecting yield, 60-cm row spacing is recommended. Planting maybe done mechanically or manually. Manual planting is accomplishes either by drill method (sowing of seed singly and evenly on shallow laid-out furrows or by the hill method

Method and Time of Cultivation

Cultivation not only loosens up the soil for better root and peg development of peanut but also controls the growth of weeds. Yield of peanut is greatly influenced by the combination of off-barring and hilling up. Likewise, hilling up is better that flat cultivation because the former provides loose soil around the base of the plant for the developing pegs. Hilling up done 35-40 days after plant emergence or just before flowering results in higher than hilling up after flowering.


The traditional method of weeding is still done which is a combination of cultivation and manual weeding. Weeding should start as early as 2 weeks and not later than 6 weeks to maximize bean yield.


Peanut is a crop that fits well in many multi-cropping schemes. In the Philippines, peanut is planted between rows of corn at varying spacing. Corn plants spaced at 100 cm apart with one row of peanut intercrop produce the highest grain yield. However, one row of peanut in between 2 rows of corn spaced at 75 cm is found to be the best intercropping combination. Intercropping peanut with sugarcane or other annual crops such as mungbean, soybean or upland rice is highly profitable. Peanuts may also be intercropped with cassava, okra and maybe planted between rows of coffee.

Water Management

Peanut is relatively drought tolerant. Most field legumes need critical period of water during germination, flowering, pod development and pod filling stages. When peanut is planted during rainy season, irrigation is generally not needed, however, when planted during the dry season especially in early October, supplemental irrigation is not needed in most instances. Normally, there is still residual soil moisture sufficient to support the vegetative and reproductive process of the crop from October to December. The late dry season planting in February needs supplemental irrigation. Three to four applications maybe enough; first application is at planting for seed germination; the second weeks after planting; the third at midbloom stage and the fourth at pod filling. The average amount of irrigation water ranges from 4-50 mm per application.

Nutrient Management

In the absence of soil analysis, a 30-40-40 fertilizer recommendation is practical which is equivalent to 1.33 bags of urea (4-0-0) or 3 bags of ammosul (21-0-0), 4 bags of solophos (0-20-0) and 1.33 bags of muriate of potash (0-6-0). If soil inoculant is used, only one-half of the recommended fertilizer is needed.

Harvest Management

Peanut should be harvested at the right stage of maturity. Harvesting is normally a very manual and labor intensive operation which varies from 6 man-days/hectare to 15-23 man-days/hectare.
In small-scale production, harvesting is done manually by pulling the entire plant or passing a native animal-drawn plow or both sides of the row to loosen the soil.
The maturity of peanut can be determined by the following indications; (a) gradual withering and yellowing of the leaves of majority of the plants which are more noticeable during dry season planting; (b) expected maturity date of variety ranges from 90-110 days depending on the planting season; (c) maturity is indicated by hardness of most of the pods, darkened veins of the inner portion of the shell, vascular strands on the shell becomes more distinct and plump pinkish full grown kernels.

Post-Production Practices

Farmers aerate and dry newly harvested peanut in the field which can either handpick or strip/thresh pods from the vine by beating. To shake off pods from the vines, farmers repeatedly strike pods against a hard surface. Manual threshing of wet peanuts is accomplished at the rate of 11 kg/hr per person while that of half-dried peanuts at the rate of 30 kg/hr. per person.
For wet-season crops, farmers usually strip/thresh the pods immediately after harvest so that they can be immediately dried to the desired moisture content to prevent deterioration. For dry-season crops, stripping is delayed because farmers windrow the plants in the field to reduce plant and pod moisture content.
Picking is done is such a way that the peduncle does not go with the pod. The pods are then washed and the inferior, immature ones are separated from the mature and sound pods. The parent plant or vines are usually either left in the field to decompose or kept and used as animal fodder.

Sun drying is the traditional and most commonly used drying method by farmers which is considered as the cheap method but very dependent on climatic condition. It will take 2-5 days depending upon the weather condition to dry the crops left in the field under the sun. In general, drying is done twice within the chain of postharvest operation; initial drying prior to threshing and final drying before shelling.
When peanuts are grown as second crop, windrow frying in the field is sometimes followed by aeration in small shaded huts prior to threshing and final drying as practiced in Cagayan Valley region.

Peanut should be shelled carefully to avoid scratching, splitting and rupturing of the seed coat, breaking of the cotyledon, or separating one or both of the cotyledons from the embryonic axis. Traditionally, farmers shell peanut manually. Manual shelling of sundried and flatbed dried peanuts gave similar average recoveries of 68%. Hand shelling is the preferred method of obtaining peanut seeds which protect seeds from being broken.
After shelling, processors manually clean and sort peanut into reject, broken whole nut and unshelled nut. The common practice to winnow peanut by using crircular bamboo tray "bilao" and hand pick the nuts. Substandard kernels and other impurities are manually sorted from good kernels done by separating the split, damaged, moldy and other defective kernels.

Peanuts are stored in unshelled form. The shells act as a natural protective covering of the seeds against mechanical damage and insect infestation. Farmers use sacks but some store peanut in open concrete pits under their farmhouse, bamboo baskets. For shelled peanuts, traders use bags piled to a maximum of 7-8 layers only. Shelled peanuts are usually stored 2 months and six months only for the unshelled peanut.

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 26 March 2014 




Pechay (Brassica rapa L. cv group Pak Choi) is an erect, biennial herb, cultivated as an annual about 15-30 cm tall in vegetative stage. Ovate leaves are arranged spirally and spreading. The petioles are enlarged and grow upright forming a subcylindrical bundle. Inflorescence is a raceme with pale yellow flowers. Seeds are 1 mm in diameter and are reddish to blackish brown in color.
(Source: Department of Agriculture, Date accessed 25 March 2014)

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Cultural Management


Climatic and Soil Requirements

Pechay can be grown from low to mid elevations throughout the year.
Production is best, however, during the dry season in sandy to clay loam soil, with a pH of 5.5-6.5.


A1-ha production area requires kg seeds.

Pechay can either be sown directly in soil or transplanted. Direct seeding is carried out by broadcasting or by sowing in rows. Cover seeds to a depth of about 1 cm by raking or spreading additional topsoil. Water immediately after sowing. Plant spacing should be 10 cm between plants and 20 cm between rows.

If transplanted, sow seeds initially in seedbeds. Transplant seedlings 2-3 weeks after sowing at a distance of 10 cm between plants and 20 cm between rows.

Transplant preferably in the afternoon and water immediately. Mulch with grass clippings or rice straw.

Seedling Production

Sow seeds thinly on shallow furrows across the seedbed/seedboxes, and cover lightly with fine top soil. Do not broadcast seeds when sowing to avoid thick germination in one place.

Water the seedbed/seedbox daily using a sprinkler so as not to expose the seeds which might be eaten by insects. However, when seeds have germinated, regulate watering to produce sturdy seedlings.

Weeding, watering and other cultural management practices should be regularly done until the seedlings are ready for transplanting, or after about one month.


Moisten thoroughly the seedbed a day before pricking out the seedlings for transplanting. This will facilitate easy pricking out of seedlings for transplanting from the seedbed to minimize root injury.

Gently prick out the seedlings and transplant them in the prepared plots or in pots, after which water adequately the plots or pots.

Spacing usually depends on the variety of pechay to be planted but the common distance used is 15 cm between hills and 20 cm between rows.


Apply seedlings with starter solution using urea (46-0-0) at the rate of 2 tbsp/gal of water. Side-dress along the rows at the rate of 1 tbsp/plant one week after transplanting.

Pest and Disease Management

Damping-off, soft rot and clubroot are the most important diseases of pechay, while diamondback moth and aphids are the major insect pests.

Spraying hot pepper extract can control these pests. When seedlings begin to wilt, reduce watering immediately. Uproot and burn disease-infected plants to prevent spread of diseases.

Cultivation is also necessary to minimize weeds.

Care and Maintenance

Apply liberal amount of organic fertilizer at the base of the plants, then cover lightly with soil and water immediately.

Water the plant whenever necessary or depending on your own judgment or observation of the plant.

Weeding must also be done to minimize competition for soil nutrients. However, weed carefully so as not to disturb the roots of the pechay.

To control pests and diseases, spray the right amount/dosage of pesticides as prescribed on the label, which should never be increased. If possible, plant green onions along the sides of the plot. This plant is offensive to some insects/pests and thus would act as a deterrent to the attack of some insects/pests to the crops. Mechanical or hand picking of worms may be resorted to on a limited number of plants.


Harvest as early as three weeks after planting or between 30-40 days after sowing. Harvest preferably in the afternoon to minimize postharvest losses.
Upon harvesting, wash the plants, trim old leaves and remove roots.

Grade according to size and quality, and pack in strong rigid containers with holes at the sides to allow aeration.

Pack with the base of the plant to the sides of the baskets. Maintain turgidity by lining the basket with paper.

Sources: Department of Agriculture and PCAAARRD-DOST, Date accessed 26 March 2014




Pili (Canarium ovatum Engl). is an indigenous nut tree in the Bicol Region and known for its pili confectioneries which are sold in different product forms and in various packaging containers.

The tree is about 20 meters tall and 50 cm. in trunk diameter or more with age. It is dioecious, the male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. The leaves are large compound and arranged alternately. The leaves are thick, smooth green to dark green with prominent veination. Female flowers are bigger than the male flower. The fruit is oblong. It consist of a thin, shiny, purplish black skin, a fleshy thick, fibrous pulp and a thick, hard shell. Inside the shell is the edible white kernel. The peak season of harvest for pili is May and ends in September. Fruits are harvested when fully mature. (Source: Department of Agricutlure, Date accessed 25 March 2014)

For Cost and Returns, you may visit the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.


  • Shell
  • Pulp
  • Leaves
  • Trunks/ Branches

Cultural Management


Climatic and Soil Requirements

Pili thrive best in areas where rainfall is almost evenly distributed throughout the year and in sandy loam soil rich in organic matter and in volcanic soils. Being a hardy tree, however it can also grow in marginal lands. It can grow in steep hillsides and even under coconuts.

Propagation Practices

There are two ways of propagating pili seedlings, sexually or asexually such as marcotting, grafting and budding. Pili is generally propagated by seeds. It is a delicious tree, meaning that the male and female flowers are not present in the same tree. The female productive trees are only known at fruit-bearing age and the seeds from the bearing trees will not necessarily be totally female.

Seed propagation is being discouraged for the following reasons:

  • Being a dioeciously specie, 50% of the resulting trees would turn out to be male
  • The long juvenile period of the seedling trees and high degree of variability in many horticultural characters among seedling trees;
  • Pili seeds take an average of 57 days to germinate, about 70 days after sowing the seedling has a pair of mature leaves
  • Average seedling trees start fruiting 5 - 6 years after seed germination.

Asexual propagation on the other hand is preferred because it ensures uniformity and true-to-type characters of the selection. It is early maturing 2-4 years. This method also assures uniform plant structure to facilitate cultural management operations. It also enables planting of more productive trees per hectare. Cleft grafting and inarching are recommended for propagating pili asexually. Success ranges from 50-85% depending o the physiological state of mother trees and propagators skill. Grafting operation is usually done in November to February Cleft grafting technique is now proven successful, relatively easy and is gaining popularity for large-scale commercial propagation.

Land Preparation

In backyard planting, farmers dig holes just wide enough to give ample room for seedling and to prevent trapping water, especially when soil is heavily textured. In utilizing second-growth forests (less the stumps and existing trees), holes are aligned in all directions as mush as possible. If open lands previously utilized for other crops are to be used for planting pili, deep plowing is done to expose and loosen the soil followed by several harrowing until the desired tilth is attained.
For newly opened areas, the following standard land preparation procedures are recommended:
Underbrush tall shrubs and grasses and remove big stumps and fallen trees to facilitate plowing, harrowing. Fallen trees serve as alternate host of insect pest and diseases.
Plow once and then harrow once or twice depending on the prevalence of weeds. Remove stumps of big trees or shrubs, especially if they obstruct in the laying out of the area.
Row clear if the pili orchard is to be established under coconut in addition to plowing and harrowing.

Crop Establishment

Planting system and distance of planting

Plant seedlings when the diameter has attained the size of a pencil. Plant at least two seedlings 30 to 40 cm apart per hill. Some male trees are needed as sources of pollen for pollination. Grafted plants/seedlings are planted in the field as soon as the first flush is matured. Hardening of seedlings require at least three-to-six month period prior to planting

Care and Maintenance (Source: The Philippine Recommends for Pili, PCARRD Philippines Recommend Series No. 81, 1997)

Periodic underbrushing and ring weeding must be done whenever necessary. Usually these are done once every quarter in areas with frequent occurrence of rain. The size of cleaning around the tree should be as wide as the spread of the crown.

Training/Pruning (Source: The Philippine Recommends for Pili, PCARRD Philippines Recommend Series No. 81, 1997)

For orchards which used seedlings, it is advisable to top cut the plant 1-2 years after planting to induce the growth of lateral branches. Top-cut trees usually grow low and more bushy and afford easy harvesting. Orchards with asexually propagated plants do not need to be top cut. Only occasional pruning of damaged branches should be done. After cutting or pruning, paint the wound to protect it from being invaded by wood-boring insects. It will also prevent the entrance of unnecessary moisture.

Intercropping (Source: The Philippine Recommends for Pili, PCARRD Philippines Recommend Series No. 81, 1997)

Intercropping is practiced while the pili trees are not yet productive. Small fruit crops that are adapted in the area are planted such as banana, papaya, pineapple or annual field and vegetable crops. These crops will provide income that can be used to maintain the area, while the pili trees are still unproductive. Furthermore, cash crops require cultivation such that clean culture of the orchard is ensured. Residual effect of the fertilizer applied to the cash crop will also benefit the pili trees. Intercropping, however, should be stopped when the canopy of the trees are already close to each other that it might interfere with orchard operations.

Although there is no study yet on pili-based cropping system, the survey of existing plantation shows that pili trees are compatible with a wide variety of plants. Hence, intercropping pili trees with pineapple or other fruit trees will be beneficial provided that sufficient amount of sunlight could penetrate of both the pili and the intercrop.

Nutrient Management

Most of the trees in Bicol are allowed to grow untended. Agriculturists, however, say that if the trees are given proper care and adequate fertilizer, faster growth and higher yields will be realized. Apply about 100 to 150 grams of nitrogen fertilizer per hill at least twice a year after ring weeding within the first three years after planting, and apply complete fertilizer (14-14-14) from the fourth year onward

Pest Management

The most common pests are the twig borers (Niphonclea albata News) and (Niphonoclea capito Pasc.) and gray mealy bugs (Ferrisia virgata CK 11.). "Tiyangaw" a rice pest, was also observed. Borers hatch inside a stem eat anf grow there as caterpillars. The presence of borers is indicated by the sudden wilting of plant tops. Pest attack can be controlled by spraying with insecticide. Occurrence of pest attack and diseases is negligible so as to cause concern.

Harvest Management

Harvesting is usually done during the months of May to October. The maturity index for pili nut is the full purplish black pulp of the whole nut. Pili fruits in cluster do not mature at the same time. Therefore, harvest only the ripened fruits. Harvesting matured fruits is done by priming or picking only the ripe fruits. A long pole, a cutter or knife and a basket may be used. Harvested fruits are placed in baskets or sacks. If the pulp of the fruit is intended to be sold for food purposes, harvesting is done late in the afternoon or early in the morning and placed in a well aerated container to prevent softening of the pulp.

To facilitate the gathering or collection and for high recovery of fallen fruits, the following strategy can be done.

Clean the area corresponding to the canopy of the tree
Spread a straw mat or net around the tree

Postharvest Management (Source: The Philippine Recommends for Pili, PCARRD Philippines Recommend Series No. 81, 1997)

Pulp Removal - Four methods of depulping are practiced.

Hot Water Treatment (HWT)- Heat the water in a vat until 60°-70°C. Put off the fire. Place fruits in the vat and stir constantly to keep its temperature uniform. Leave fruits for about 15-30 minutes to soften the pulp. Drain water. Cool fruits and peel manually.

Pounding using a wooden mallet- The fruit is pounded until the pulp is separated from the shell. This is the simplest and most economical since the depulped nuts are no longer washed and are directly dried under the sun.

Retting method- This is used in a commercial scale, where the fruits are soaked in tap water from 1-2 days until the pulp softens.

Fermentation method- Fruits are kept is sacks or polyethylene bag and left from 1-2 days under shade to soften pulp. The pulp softens because of its moisture and higher temperature inside the sack.

Washing and Drying- After depulping, wash the nuts in clean water to remove the slimy material adhering to the shell. During this process, discard all nuts that float. Floaters are either unfilled or devoid of kernel.

After washing, nuts are dried under full sun for 2-3 days sufficient enough for pili nuts to be stored for at least a year. Nuts should not be dried for more than three days to avoid shriveling of kernels. During cloudy days, nuts may be dried longer for about 4-5 days.

Storage- Pili nuts can be stored either shelled or unshelled. Most processors place the nuts in clean sacks which have a capacity of about 50kg. Stack sacks in pallets and store in a well-aerated room. Sacks should not be in contact with the walls of the storage house to prevent contact with any moisture. A regular inspection prevents rat and insect infestation.

Indigenous materials such as cardboard boxes are more durable and result in lowest number of rancid and shriveled kernels after a year of storage.

Shelling- Kernel is extracted manually. Cut the shell crosswise at the middle portion with the use of a sharp bolo. After cutting the shell in two, remove the kernel carefully and place in a clean collection box or plastic basin. Great care and skill are required and the cutting stroke should be controlled to prevent cutting through the kernels.

Seed Coat Removal- The brown seed coat or testa sticks tightly to the kernel. To peel, blanch the kernels with the boiling water for about three minutes and cool for easy removal of testa. Squeeze the kernels carefully to slip off the testa. The clean kernels are air-dried and packed in plastic bags prior to processing into various food preparation.

Technology Option

Refrigeration to hasten germination of pili seeds

Refrigeration will hasten the rate of germination of pili seeds. This was found out by researchers W. C. Santelices and E. T. Tribiana of Catanduanes State College in Virac, Catanduanes.

Their study on the "Effect of Temperature on the Germination and Growth of Pili Seeds" showed that refrigeration of pili seeds 10 degrees centigrade within 24 hours will give the greatest number and fastest rate of germination.

Results of the study also indicated that different temperatures will have a corresponding effect on the growth of pili seeds in terms of plant height, length and width of leaf blade. It was found out that pili seeds soaked in tap water at 30 degrees centigrade within 24 hours had the best growth performance in terms of length and width of leaf blade.

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 26 March 2014




Pineapple, scientifically known as Ananas comosus Merr. is one of the country's most popular fruits. It is also one of the top earners of foreign exchange among the country's agricultural commodities. Its fruit has tapering shape, deep eyes, yellow rind to deep yellow flesh color, has small core, crispy texture, rich flavor and distinct sweetness. It is smaller in size and has spines on the leaf and tip.The fruit contains water, carbohydrates, substantial amounts of Vitamin C and Potassium and other nutrients.(Source: Department of Agriculture, Date accessed 25 March 2014)

For Cost and Returns, you may visit the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management


Soil and Climatic Requirements


Pineapple grows best in areas where the temperature is mild (24oC to 30oC) and relatively uniform throughout the year.


In terms of rainfall, pineapple thrives best in areas where rainfall is between 1000 and 1500 mm per year and evenly distributed throughout the growing period.


Although pineapple can grow within a wide range of elevation, the ideal is from 150 to 240 meters above sea level.

The production areas for pineapple are upland areas mostly planted to coconuts with an elevation ranging from 50 to 100 meters above sea level which is still within the tolerable range of elevation.


The plant grows and produces best where the soil is well drained and with pH range of 4.5 to 5.5. The predominant soil types are San Manuel clay loam, Alaminos clay, and Luisiana clay - soils of the valleys, hills and mountains.

Cultural Requirements

Land Preparation

"Queen" pineapple thrives well in soil with adequate tillage. Two plowings each, followed by harrowing, is done at an interval of 7 to 10 days per operation. This results in a well-prepared soil and reduced weed population.

In open areas, cleaning is performed before plowing and harrowing. The number of times clearing is done depend on the soil tilth and weed incidence.

Some farmers practice zero tillage or no plowing. Pineapple suckers are planted after digging holes by means of a heavy hoe.

Preparation of Planting Materials and Planting

Suckers and crowns are two popular planting materials of Queen pineapple. Before planting, the suckers are cured by exposing the root section or butt to direct sunlight for 3 to 5 days. This prevents stem rot in the newly planted crop.

When grown as intercrop to coconut trees, pineapple may be planted using the single row method at 70 centimeters to 100 centimeters between rows, and 30 centimeters between hills. The double row method can also be used at 80 centimeters between double rows, 50 centimeters within double rows and 30 centimeters between hills.

Planting is done with the aid of a bolo. Suckers are placed in the hole in vertical position.

Weed Control

Weeds can be efficiently controlled by using herbicide such as Diuron or Karmex using 2.5 kilograms to 3.0 kilograms per hectare, sprayed 7 to 10 days after planting. Herbicide-resistant weeds can be controlled by hand pulling. A second application of herbicide may be done 4 to 5 months after planting.

For cogonal areas, a pre-tillage application of glyphosate herbicide (round-up) is very helpful. In areas where mutha (Cyperus Rotundus) is thickly growing the same glyphosate herbicide compound can be applied 7 to 10 days after planting.

In areas infested by Aguingay (Nattboellia exaltata) or itchgrass, the use of Fluazifop-Butyl (e.g. Onecide 15 EC) is recommended.


Pineapple requires sufficient supply of fertilizer for vigorous growth and profitable harvest. One hectare of Queen pineapple consisting of 35,000 plants requires 24.5 bags of urea, ammonium phosphate and muriate of potash.

Potassium makes the fruit sweet; nitrogen gives vigor to the plants; and phosphorous help in the development of the roots.

Urea is best applied at the base of the plant. Ammonium phosphate and muriate of potash can be placed on top of the first three oldest leaves at the base of the plants.


After harvesting, the fruits are hauled to makeshift hut near the pick-up point of traders and near the farms of producers. Manual sorting by size for marketing purposes is done.

Product Sizes and Grades
Pineapple fruits are usually sorted according to eight (8) sizes ranging from the largest or extra-large ("extra/jumbo"), large ("primera") to the smallest or "butterball' probably from the batter's ball in baseball.

Market Preparation
After pineapple fruits were sorted according to size and ripeness, those with injury, disease or insect damage are culled. The stalk is trimmed leaving about 1 cm and dipped in 0.2% thiabendazole (fungicide) for 1 minute to prevent diseases.
The extend shelf-life and to minimize development of chilling injury, wax is applied by brushing the fruit surface with an emulsion of mineral oil, fungicide solution and liquid detergent at 1:18:0.05 ratio and air dried completely before being loaded inside the transport vehicle.

Plastic or wooden crates are used for local market. For export, fruits are packed on their sides, single layer, crown-to-crown arrangement in carton boxes with shredded paper as cushion.

Pest and Diseases

 Pests and DiseasesSymptoms/DamageRecommendations
Mealy Bugs Reddish color of the leaves, wilting, drying of the affected portions of the leaves, discoloring of the leaves, stunted growth, poor root development Use of mealybug-free planting materials, spraying of 1-1.4 milliliter of Diazinin per liter of water. Eliminate the ants that serve as carrier of the disease.
Bud Rot (Thielaviopsis paradoxa) Rotting of the stems, wilting and eventually dying of the plant. Avoid causing damage or cuts to the plant which allow the fungus to penetrate into the plant.
Fruit Core Rot (Fusarium moniliforme) Green and small sizes of fruits.

Affected fruits have brown and sunken eyes. If cut, affected parts are blackish in color, with hard texture, watery and rotting.

Avoid excessive application of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium.

Control mealy bug infestation
Avoid removing the crown during rainy season.

Heart Rot (Phytoptora parasitica p. cinnamomi)

Yellowing or reddening of the center portion of the leaves.

Wilting of the edge of the leaves.

The base of the leaves become yellowish to faded white, soft and watery with brown coloring at the sides of the affected parts. The affected leaves can be easily detached from the plant.

With foul odor.

Ensure proper drainage.

Elevate the area up to 25 cm. in case of the prevalence of disease. Practice mulching.

Plant during the dry season.

Soak the planting materials for a number of minutes in 8 to 10 grams per liter of Difoltan- water solution or 2.5 grams per liter of aliette-water solution.

Rats Damaged plants (fruits, young leaves and core of the plants are missing) Use of rat poison (e.g. Racumin) which can be mixed with rice and placed in coconut husk or bamboo baiting stations.

Always keep the plantation area clean.

Source: Department of Agriculture, Date accessed 26 March 2014




Pomelo (citrus maxima), "suha" or "lukban" in local dialect is one of the most popular species of the citrus family. It has a long shelf life that it can be transported to distant markets. Pummelo varieties include Siamese Abulug, Amoy Mantan The tree grows from 5-15 meters in height and has low spreading branches with a canopy size ranging from 5-9 meters.

Planting of citrus fruit trees particularly pummelo, calamansi, oranges and mandarin is very suitable to the Cagayan Valley Region's type of land and climate. There are numerous advantages of cultivating citrus. They are rich in vitamin C and calcium, and possesses good eating qualities when consumed either as fresh or processed into juices. Citrus is also used in the preparation of candies and marmalades and as food additives for flavoring, coloring and perfume. Today, more people are engaged in the cultivation of pummelo because of its economic, nutritional, and medicinal benefits.

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management


Soil and Climatic Adaptation

The pummelo thrives in the lowland tropics. For commercial production, elevation not exceeding 400 masl is preferred with optimum temperature of 25-30 C. It can tolerate a wide range of soils from coarse sand to heavy clay. However, it prefers deep, medium-textured, fertile soils free from injurious salts; optimum pH from 5.5 to 6.5; annual rainfall requirement 1500-1800 mm. In the 3 major pummelo provinces of Thailand, the best orchards are situated on the banks of current and former river courses.

Plant Propagation

Pummelo can be propagated sexually by seed or asexually by air layering (marcotting) , budding, grafting and stem cuttings. In Southeast Asia, the most common propagation method is air layering. However, when there are certified disease-free mother plants, grafting and budding are recommended. In the Philippines, shield budding is the standard budding method using calamandarin rootstocks. Calamandarin is believed to be a hybrid of the calamondin (xCitrofortunella microcarpa) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata).

Land Preparation and Planting

In sloping lands and in staggered planting, the farm can be prepared by slashing of the vegetation and clearing of the immediate peripheries of the hills. Otherwise, the land should be prepared thoroughly by plowing and harrowing. If the soil is too acidic, lime should be applied. Holes or pits are then dug about 0.5 m deep and wide.
The plant-to-plant spacing is 8-10 m x 6-8 m, depending on the terrain and soil fertility. This is equivalent to a population density ranging from about 125 to 208 plants per hectare. To ensure supply of nutrients, compost is applied at the bottom of the hole or mixed at about 1/3 proportion with the topsoil which will be used to refill the hole after planting. In general, planting is delayed for at least 15 days if raw manure will be used.
Planting is better done during the onset of the rainy season. But it can be done anytime if rainfall is well distributed throughout the year or where there is irrigation. In Thailand, pummelos are grown on raised beds with ditches in between beds.

Methods of Cultivation

Watering should be done immediately after planting to ensure contact of the soil and roots and to prevent wilting. The regular supply of water is especially important before flowering and until after harvest. To force early flowering, irrigation is delayed during the dry season until the trees show signs of wilting. The wilting trees are then irrigated. To sustain new shoot growth and the development of flowers and fruits, regular supply of water is needed. A mature pummelo tree may need 100-200 li water daily during dry periods.

Planting of intercrops like banana and areca palm on the strips between the rows of pummelo has been practiced to maximize utilization of vacant farm spaces, provide shade and protection from wind, and serve as cash crops during the juvenile stage of the main crop. Annual intercrops will also serve as covercrop.

Just like other crops, pummelo needs regular weeding to eliminate competition for soil moisture and nutrients. The uprooted weeds can be piled around the base of the trees to serve as mulch.

At 4-6 months after planting, the trees are pruned to induce branching. This is done by top pruning about 30-40 cm from the ground. 3 branches which are evenly distributed in separate horizontal directions are retained and allowed to develop.

Proper fertilization is a standard cultural practice in fruit production, especially in association with floral induction. A practice in Nakhon Prathom, Thailand is to apply 5 kg complete fertilizer per tree per year split into 6 applications or every two months. Foliar fertilizer is also applied every new flushes. In the last application before harvest, NPK combination of 13-13-21 is used to improve fruit taste. In other parts of the country, 2-split applications are recommended, the first before flowering and the second 4-6 months later. (Verheij and Coronel, 1992).
In the Philippines, the recommended rate of fertilizer per year increases from 5-20 kg organic and 4-15 inorganic fertilizer for each bearing tree, depending on age. The fertilizer is applied in holes about 1-2 meters from the trunk. Spraying of foliar fertilizer is likewise recommended every 20-day interval starting at 40 until 140 days after fruit set. (Loquias, 2006

Pests and Diseases Control

All pests of citrus also attack the pummelo plant. These include the common leafminers (Phyllocnistis citrella), leaf-eating caterpillars, fruit-boring caterpillar (Citripestis sp.), scales, red mites, fruit flies, nematodes and rats.
The major disease of pummelo is the bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas citri. Symptoms are characterized by oily spots on the leaves and fruits which later turn brown and corky. Control methods include defoliation and, in severely infected plants, burning to prevent spread.
Other diseases are the root rot, gummosis on the trunk and brown rot of the fruit, all of which are caused by the Phytophthora fungi. Both fruits and leaves are also infected by scab caused by Elsinoe fawcetti. To control fungal diseases, repeated spray of chemical fungicides is recommended. The leaves, fruits and sometimes the branches are likewise prone to sooty mold which is caused by Capnodium citrior Miliola citricola. Sooty mold can be prevented by proper insect pest control.
A recent innovation to prevent serious damage due to insect pests and diseases is the bagging of fruits.

Potting of Seedlings and Care Management

Seedlings are ready for potting 21-28 days after germination in "7x12"x 0.003 polyethylene plastic bags containing garden soil and place them in the nursery.

  • Avoid transplanting seedlings with deformed root system (goose-neck root).
  • Water immediately the newly potted plants.
  • Eliminate weeding.

Asexual Propagation and Care of Budded Seedlings

  • Rootstocks are ready for budding in 6-8 months after potting.
  • Apply nitrogenous fertilizer at least five grams per plant monthly.
  • Budding should be done at a height of six to eight inches above the ground level.
  • Do not fertilize newly budded plants, unless the bud eye have shown signs of growth.
  • Remove the wrap of bud, three weeks after budding.
  • To hasten growth of bud-eyes, "lopping" or "cripping" the top of the seedlings two to three inches above the bud is recommended.
  • When the bud-eyes started to germinate, decapitate the rootstock one to three inches above the bud-eye union to force growth of the bud-eye or scion.
  • Weeding should not be done when the scion are succulent and tender.


The pummelos are picked at maturity which occurs about 140-160 days from fruit set. The dull skin of the fruit brightens upon ripening as the oil glands become more prominent and shiny. This change starts near the tip of the fruit and progresses towards the stalk.

 Source: Crop Agriculture Review, Date accessed 26 March 2014

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