Radish, rabanus or labaRadishnus is a very popular root crop notwithstanding its zero nutritive value. This cylindrical vegetable is crisp, pungent and has varied uses. It is not surprising therefore to see radish in the home gardens because it is also grows in matures quickly. It is usually grown as an intercrop or a companion crop with other vegetables such as cabbage or cauliflower.
(Source: Bureau of Biz Tech, Date accessed 26 March 2014)

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management


Soil and Climate Requirements

Local environmental conditions require radish varieties that are strongly, fibrous and varying in size. Japanese radish, Chinese radish and White Icicle varieties fulfill these requirements. These varieties can be grown in all types of soil, but a fairly light, friable, cool, moist soil is preferred. This enable the roots to fully penetrate the soil and develop normally, resulting in the smooth tubers preferred by a costumers. Many Filipino farmer plant radish during the month of January, February, April to June, and August to December. The manner of planting radish depends on the scale or number to be planted. Plots are used in backyard and beds for commercial scale planting.

Prepare the backyard or the garden lot by digging with a spade fork. Pulverize the soil, remove stones, and divide into one meter (m) wide and 15 to 20 centimeters (cm) high plots of any length. Level the plot with a rake and form shallow furrows, 25 cm apart and 2 cm deep, along the length of the plot.

For commercial planting, low the land and harrow several times to reduce the soil to a fine tilth. Make beds 1 m wide and 20 cm high. Drag a piece of bamboo salt on the top of the bed to level and smoothen the surface. Make thin shallow furrows, 25 cm apart and 2 cm deep, on the beds. Each bed contains 4 rows of plants.

For the soil to cope with the rapid growth of radish, it much be rich and fertile. Ensure this out by applying 300 to 450 kilograms (kg) per hectare of ammonium sulfite and 130 to 195 kg per hectare of urea. For small-scale radish farming, fertilizer is applied while preparing the plots and during bedding for commercial planting. Never apply manure to the soil.

A hectare requires 10 to 20 kilos (k) of seeds. Avoid overcrowding by evenly and correctly distributing the seeds in the furrows. Overcrowding causes the occurrence of misshapen roots. Seeds are sown 2.5 cm apart in rows for big varieties. After sowing, drag a piece of wood or bamboo slightly along the line of shallow furrows to cover the seeds. Start cultivating and weeding the soil as soon as weeds appear.
Plots are watered with the use of sprinkling cans or sprinkler. Daily watering will produce tender, sweet and crisp roots.

In commercial planting, irrigation water is allowed to flow between the beds to saturate the soil after which the water is drained out. This process is done on weekly basis to avoid producing pungent or the hot roots. But too much moisture must also be avoided, especially when plants have already developed big root since excessive soil moisture causes root rot.

Land Preparation

  • Plow and harrow the field lengthwise and crosswise, and leave it for seven days to allow the uprooted weeds to rot and their seeds to grow.
  • Plow and harrow as before, repeat a third time but deeper.
  • Make elevated beds about one-half meter away from each other.
  • Put fertilizer where plants will be grown mix this with the soil by means of a rake.


  • A hectare of land would accommodate about 100 grams of seeds. Apply a kerosene can of compost before planting.
  • Treat the seeds first in growth regulator like "Seet Treat."
  • Mix one teaspoon Orthocide 50 WP per kilo of seeds to check whatever diseases they may have.
  • Prepare the planting of the seeds. To make them evenly apart, use a string attached to both ends — one at 10 cm, a second at 40 cm, etc.
  • With the aid of a pointed stick, make a hole one and a half (1-½) cm deep and 10 cm apart, following the distance of the string.
  • Drop two seeds in each hole and cover with fine soil. Water with fine spray so as not to dislodge the seeds or remove the top soil.
  • Cover with straw about 5-10 cm thick between the rows of plants, with space of about 5 cm from the plant. Do not cover the seed especially if it has not germinated. Keep away chicken from scratching the seeds away. The straw or dried leaves serve to protect the plants from strong rain or intense heat, and from growing weeds.
  • Water morning and afternoon in the first three (3) days after planting do not allow them to get dry. When the seeds germinate, water only in the morning. Ten days after all have germinated, water only in the afternoon when the ground is dry.
  • Dig a canal around the plot about 30 cm wide and 40 cm deep to where the water will run in case of heavy rain.
  • Before planting, mix a can of compost to every 2 sq. meters of plot. If animal manure will be used, apply this after the first plowing: one can per sq. meter. If chemical fertilizer will be used, have the soil analyzed first at the Bureau of Soils Laboratory. If not, the National Food and Agricultural Council recommends 8 bags of ammonium sulfate for every hectare of radish plants.


Get seeds only from healthy plants. Let these flower and bear seeds. Apply 2 grams ammonium sulfate, and water daily. Maintain with care until the fruits turn yellow. Select good seeds from good plants. When the pods are over mature, these will burst open. Dry the seeds in the sun to kill pests or disease. Before storing them, mix a little DDT or Orthocide 50 WP before packing. Put in a jar with fine charcoal at the bottom and over it a piece of cardboard with holes. Label jar. Seal the cover with masking tape until the next planting season.


When the soil around the plant becomes compact, loosen it especially when the roots are beginning to grow. Be careful not to hurt the roots. If in spite of putting straw or dried leaves, weeds continue to grow, remove them manually.

Pests and Diseases

To control insect pests, spray any of the following: Orthene 75 SP, SD, Tamaron 600 EC, Phosdrin 1.5 Ec, Hostathion 40 EC, or Vegetox, following instructions on the label, at an interval of 7 days. Trapping by means of light helps to control insect pests.


  1. A soil-borne or seed borne disease of radish attacks the new plant when the soil is very wet. As mentioned earlier, treat the seeds with orthocide or Spergon Fermate or Zerlate — one-half teaspoon per gallon water.
  2. The black rot disease has a V-shape on the leaves. The leaves turn yellow then fall off. There is a black ring around the body when the leaf is removed


Different varieties have different times of maturity, from 30 days from germination to 100 days after planting. Thus, it is good to know the variety to be planted, or try ten plants first. When overmature, radish is fibrous, porous and does not taste good. Pull up the crop when harvesting in early morning or late afternoon. Do not harvest when the sun is hot because it will wilt immediately. Wash, bundle and bring to market first hour in the morning. Do not pile them too high so as not bruise the crops, and to avoid heating for the crops under the pile.




Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) is a tropical fruit tree, which belongs to the family Sapindaceae. The word rambutan is derived from the Malay word rambut meaning "hair"because of numerous hairy protuberances of the fruit.

It is a medium-sized tropical tree growing to a height of 12-20 meters. The fruit is round to oval drupe three to six centimeters, rarely eight centimeters tall and three to four centimeters broad, borne together in a loose pendant clusters of 10-20. The leathery skin is reddish (rarely orange or yellow), and covered with fleshy pliable spines. When these fruits are peeled open, a juicy white flesh with a delightful sweet taste, which clings to a woody seed, will be revealed. (source: Infopedia, Date accessed 26 March 2014)

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management







 Rambutan tree can be propagated either by seeds or by asexual propagation. Asexually propagated plant materials can be sourced out from DA Research Outreach and Satellite Stations or from any accredited nursery operators in your locality.

Grafted planting material is preferred because it bears fruit earlier and becomes true-to-type. Planting materials propagated thru seeds have 25 percent chance to bear fruit.

Land Preparation

In hilly areas, clean or underbrush the area and remove all stumps, while for flat areas, plow and harrow thoroughly to loosen the soil.



Stake at a distance of 8-10 meters between hills and 8-10 meters between rows. Prepare holes measuring 30 cm in diameter at a depth of 30 cm.






The ideal planting distance is 10 x 10 meters because the trees grow bigger using the square method of planting.


Once decided on the farming method and when the oyster spats have settled
The best time to plant is during the onset of rainy season. Planting any time of the year or during dry months is also possible, as long as the trees will be provided with adequate moisture and partial shade.
Apply organic fertilizer plus inorganic as basal fertilizer based on soil analysis and cover with thin layer of soil.
Water the plants and provide with partial shade. Carefully remove the plant material from its container and plant it in the hole, cover with top soil and press gently. Be sure that the potted plant should be set at about the same level as it stood in the nursery.
Water the plants and provide with partial shade

Care of Young and Bearing Trees


The general recommendation in the absence of soil analysis. Apply a kilogram of organic fertilizer per tree every two months for the first two years. On the third and fourth year, apply one or two kg of complete fertilizer per tree and a mixture of 300 g of muriate of potash.


Weeds compete with rambutan tree for soil nutrients, retard growth and increase labor. As such, practice ring weeding one meter radius from the base of the plant quarterly or as the need arises.


Rice hulls or grasses from the ringweeded tree can be use. Avoid materials that are alternate host of insects and hazardous to fire.


Irrigate young trees during the dry months.
Water is needed during the flowering period up to the fruit development to avoid flower abortion and fruitlet drops.


During its first four years, intercrop the plantation with leguminous and early maturing crops. This practice will provide additional income while the trees are still young.
Leguminous crops when plowed under, adds fertility to the soil and prevent weed growth.


Remove water sprouts below the graft union. During the first three years, dead and diseased twigs are likewise be pruned.

Insect Pests, Diseases and their Control

Regular monitoring is needed to determine the extent of insect damage and to know the appropriate control measures to be applied.




Care of Bearing Trees

The ideal and best fruiting trees to maintain are those low growing trees (about five meters tall) with spreading branches. To achieve this, prune the lead trunk thru center pruning.

The success of fruiting depends on the availability of water and fertilizer applied during the pre-conditioning of the tree up to the fruit development following the general recommendation.
During the pre-conditioning stage, apply organic fertilizer at the rate of 25 kg/tree just after ring weeding. Apply rice hulls as mulch after the application of organic fertilizer around the tree.
Apply inorganic fertilizer 1-2 months after pre-conditioning of the tree. Dilute 2-3 kilogram of complete (14-14-14) or ammonium phosphate (16-20-0) mix with 300g of muriate of potash in a container or plastic drum with mounted hose using fertilization method. The most simple way is to cut sturdy plastic tube about two feet long and position the tube in five strategic locations along the root hair zone, about one meter away from the base of the tree. Dig a hole and place the tube in slanting position. Pour the fertilizer mixture into the tube and the roots will absorb the fertilizers applied. This is done in preparation of the flower budstick.


At flowering stage, irrigate the trees to avoid flower abortion. Likewise, avoid any spraying during full blown so as not to kill pollinators.

rambutan10During the fruitlet development, spray foliar fertilizer mix with insecticide and fungicides to prevent occurrence of pests and diseases. Irrigate the tree to avoid fruitlet drops. Apply second dose of muriate of potash diluted in water to enhance fruit enlargement and sweetness of the fruit. Repeat foliar spray ten days after the first foliar spray.


Diseased and dead trunks must be pruned. After the fruits are harvested, pruning is necessary to enhance the development of lateral fruiting branches

Harvest and Post-Harvest Practices

Rambutan fruits are ripe three and a half months or 14 weeks from fruit set. Harvest the fruits as soon as they are fully ripe or when the skin is pinkish red. Usually a bunch of rambutan fruits do not ripe at the same time, thus, requires harvesting by priming.
Harvest it with the use of shears or a long pole with a hook on one end. It is recommended to cut-off about four to five inches of the fruiting twigs.
Daily harvesting during peak season can be achieved in a moderately sized orchard (200-300 trees).

Source: Department of Agriculture, Date accessed 26 March 2014




Rice, scientifically named as Oryza sativa, is the most important crop in the Philippines. It contributes 15 percent to the total Gross Value Added (GVA) in agriculture. It is grown in 4.0 million hectares of which small farmers depend on the production of rice as their major source of livelihood. 
(Source: Department of Agriculture-AFMIS, Date accessed 26 March 2014)

For Prices and Market Trends, you may visit the Agriculture and Fisheries Market Information System.

For Cost and Returns, you may visit the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management


Variety and Seed Selection


Used high quality seeds of a recommended variety

  • High quality seeds have fewer seeds from weeds and other varieties;
  • uniform in size;
  • free from seed-borne pests and diseases; and
  • viable (i.e. at least 85% germination rate)

All this can contribute to a 5-10% increase in grain yield. Yield increase is guaranteed further by using high quality seeds of a variety adapted and recommended to local conditions.


The seed is either certified by the National Seed Quality Control Services as evidenced by a valid tag attached to the sack or it comes from reliable sources (i.e. PhilRice, accredited seed growers). If seed is farmer-grown or harvested from certified seeds, it should have passed germination test.

The variety suits the environment (e.g, irrigated, rainfed, saline-prone as recommended by PhilRice or local agriculture office); addresses a prevailing local field problem (e.g. resistance or tolerance to stresses in the); or has performed well in at least two seasons of adaptability trial (results of multi-adaptation trials in the province or Location-Specific Technology Development or LSTD trials may be used).


  • Buy seeds from accredited seed growers.
  • If there are no accredited seed growers in the locality, then source seeds from reliable sources (i.e. farmers whose fields have uniform crop growth) or produce your own high quality seeds (see handouts on Ten Steps to Producing Own Good Seeds). However, make sure to perform a seed germination test to ensure quality. There should be at least 85% germination.
  • If the variety has not yet been tested in the area, make initial selection based on recommended environment and cropping season. Then, conduct at least two seasons of trial in the locality.
  • In wet season, consider the prevalent pests in the area and the shattering and lodging characteristics of a variety. In dry season, consider planting hybrid varieties because these varieties tend to perform better during dry season.
  • In rainfed areas, farmers tend to use varieties for irrigated lowland areas owing probably to lack of access to rainfed varieties. It is recommended to first choose varieties intended for rainfed environment. Consider also traditional or regionally preferred varieties for rainfed environment as these have been most likely adapted in the locality.
  • Farmers also often prefer new varieties, believing that they yield better. However, a variety may be released based on reasons other than yield (e.g. better grain quality and resistance to pests). Thus, it is important to know the characteristics of the varieties but, more importantly, to conduct adaptability trials.

Land Preparation


No high and low soil spots after final leveling

  • Leads to efficient use of water and better grain yield and quality;
  • reduces the amount of water needed to fill up a field;
  • allows for more uniform water distribution;
  • easier drainage of field plots;
  • make fertilizer application more efficient;
  • reduce weed problems;
  • allow for better management of golden apple snail;
  • better crop stand;
  • uniform crop maturity; and
  • timely harvesting.

Use of farm machinery for weeding and harvesting, and the application of controlled irrigation are facilitated as well.

Crop Establishment


Synchronous Planting

  • Practiced synchronous planting after a fallow period.
      • Synchronous planting enables efficient use of irrigation;
      • minimizes spread of pest damage within a community; and
      • helps the community avoid the overlapping incidence of insect population and disease occurrence.

After harvest, farmers are advised to leave their fields idle for 30 days (fallow period). This breaks the insect pest cycle and destroys disease hosts.

The field should have a fallow period of at least 30 days after harvest. It should be planted within 14 days before and after the majority of the irrigation service area has been planted.


  • Allow a fallow period of at least a month from harvest to establishment of the next crop. This can break the pest cycle and facilitate the success of crop management practices.
  • Follow the local planting calendar. This maximizes the use of irrigation within the community.

Sufficient number of healthy seedlings

Sufficient number of healthy seedlings leads to a good canopy that maximizes photosynthesis and enables better competition against weeds. Healthy seedlings have better root growth that improves nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency.
To obtain this:

  • sow the right amount of high quality seeds;
  • transplant the right amount of seedlings; and
  • provide the right kind and amount of nutrients at the right time.


For transplanted rice (TPR):

  • Seed rate: 20 to 40kg/ha for inbred; 15 to 20 kg/ha for hybr
  • Replant missing hills within 7 days after transplanting (DAT)
  • Assess health status of seedlings at 10 DAT
  • Randomly select 3 sampling sites in a diagonal line across the field. The sampling sites should be at least 1 m from the edge of the field.
  • Count the number of hills/m2 using a 1 m x 1 m quadrat. Add the number of hills and divide the total by 3 to get the average number of hills/m2.

For direct wet-seeded rice (DSWR):

  • Fifteen days after seeding pre-germinated seeds, plant density should be at least 150 plants per meter square, for a rate of 40kg seeds/ha,
  • For a seed rate of 80kg/ha, plant density should be at least 300 plants per meter square.
  • To asses plant density, use 1 m x 1 m quadrant.
  • Randomly select 3 sampling sites in a diagonal line across the field. Each sampling site should be at least 1 m from the edge of the field

In every parcel for TPR and DWSR, randomly select 10 hills. Each hill should have at least one healthy seedling. A healthy seedling is:

  • green;
  • with good growth; and
  • free from pest and disease.


  • Sow the right amount of seeds to have strong and healthy seedlings.
  • Resulting seedlings have higher survival rate and easily recover from transplanting shock. Sowing a higher amount of seeds results in thinand weak seedlings. Proper spacing enables the crop to develop a goodground cover and helps control weeds.
  • For transplanted rice, establish seedbed near a water source and protect it from pests, particularly birds and rats. It should have a good drainage. Proper water and pest management are important at this stage. If thegerminated seeds are covered too deeply with water, this will result inweak seedlings with poor root growth because of lack of air in thesoil. Birds and rats feed on seeds directly and pull up germinatingseeds and so it is important to guard the seedbed against these pests.
  • Apply the organic materials before leveling the seedbed. For fine-textured soil, incorporate 10-15 bags organic material or 3-4 bags commercialorganic fertilizer in a 400 m2 seedbed before sowing the seeds. Organic materials help loosen the soil. Thus, it makes pulling ofseedlings easier and minimizes root damage. Use compost or any fullydecomposed organic materials such as dried animal manure, carbonized rice hull, or rice straw.
  • For medium-textured soil, you may not apply organic materials.
  • For direct wet-seeded rice,the field is ready for seeding after land preparation and leveling asdescribed in the recommendation for Key Check 2. Pre-germinatedseeds/seedlings should be protected from birds, rats, snails and weedsfollowing the standard practices described in the pest managementsection. Broadcast pre-germinated seeds evenly onto the leveled field.
  • Sow extra pre-germinated seeds (1 kg) on the side of the field for replanting. Replant bare patches 7-10 DAS.

Table 1. Recommended Seedbed Practices

 VarietySeedling Rate (kg/ha)Minimum Seedbed Area m2 Age of Seedlings (days)No. of Seedlings (per hill) Planting Distance (cm x cm) 
INBRED 20 - 40 400 - 600 20  - 25 1 - 3 20 x 20
HYBRID 15 - 20 400 - 600 20 - 25 1 - 2 20 x 20

Nutrient Management

Sufficient nutrients from tilling to early panicle initiation and flowering stages.


  • good crop growth;
  • good panicle development; and
  • attainment of the yield potential.


  • oversupply of nutrients results to increased susceptibility of the crop to pests, lodging, etc.
  • under supply and untimely application slows down the growth of seedlings, lower number of tillers, and lower grain weight.

Nutrients from fertilizers must be used efficiently and effectively. Proper management of nutrients improves crop growth and yield.


There should be no nutrient deficiency and toxicity symptoms from tilling to early panicle initiation and flowering stages that may impair the growth, development and yield of rice.

  • At flowering stage:
  • achieve at least 210 panicles/m2 in rainfed lowland
  • 300 panicles/m2 in irrigated lowland for transplanted rice
  • 270 panicles/m2 in rainfed lowland
  • 350 panicles/m2 in irrigated lowland for direct wet seeded rice.

To assess panicle density:

  • randomly select 3 sampling sites in a diagonal line across the field (the sampling sites should be at least 1 m from the edge of the field)
  • count the number of panicles using a 1 m x 1 m quadrat
  • add the number of panicles and divide the total by 3 to get the average number of panicles/m2.


Know and manage the nutrient requirement of your crop based on the available information, nutrient assessment and decision-support tools.
Manage the Nitrogen needs of your crop based on the leaf color chart (LCC).

  • If the LCC reading is below 4 for transplanted rice and below 3 for direct wet-seeded rice, apply N fertilizer (1.5 bags urea per hectare in the dry season and 1 bag urea per hectare in the wet season) from tillering to early flowering stages
  • Minus-One Element Technique (MOET)--conduct the MOET test 30 days before transplanting or direct wet seeding and assess the nutrient status based on plant nutrient deficiency symptoms and growth response
  • Soil Test Kit (STK).

Aside from nutrient deficiency, consider mineral toxicity in deciding on the nutrients to apply. You can use other soil fertility assessment methods in assessing the nutrient status of the soil.

Fertilizer Recommendation

Soil Nutrient StatusWet Season Yield Target 5 t/haDry Season Yield Target 7 t/ha
P and K are not deficient First application:
3-3.5 bags 14-14-14-12S
First application:
4-4.5 bags 14-14-14-12S
P and K are deficient

For fine-textured soil:
First application:
3-3.5 bags 14-14-14-12S +
0.5 bag 16-20-0 + 0.5 bag 0-0-60

For medium-textured soil:
First application:
3.5 bags 14-14-14-12S + 0.5 bag 16-20-0

0.5 bag 0-0-60

For fine-textured soil:
First application:
4-4.5 bags 14-14-14-12S +
1 bag 16-20-0 + 1 bag 0-0-60

For medium-textured soil:
First application:
4.5 bags 14-14-14-12S +
1 bag 16-20-0

1 bag 0-0-60

Only P is deficient First application:
3-3.5 bags 14-14-14-12S +
0.5 16-20-0
First application:
4-4.5 bags 14-14-14-12S +
1 bag 16-20-0
Only K is deficient

For fine-textured soil:
First application:
3-3.5 bags 14-14-14-12S +
0.5 bag 0-0-60

For medium-textured soil:
First application:
3.5 bags 14-14-14-12S +
0.5 bag 0-0-60 

0.5 bag 0-0-60

For fine-textured soil:
First application:
4-4.5 bags 14-14-14-12S +
1 bag 0-0-60

For medium-textured soil:
First application:
4.5 bags 14-14-14-12S + 0.5 bag 0-0-60

 At EPI:
1 bag 0-0-60

HYBRID 15 - 20 400 - 600

Consult Rice Crop Manager to get specific fertilizer recommendations.

Water Management


Avoided excessive water or drought stress that could affect the growth and yield of the crop.

  • Adequate water supply facilitates land preparation especially leveling;
  • ensures good crop establishment with faster root development;
  • promotes seedling vigor and normal crop growth and development, with minimal lodging; and
  • facilitates better nutrient uptake with the right amount and timing of water.

This corrects some nutrient imbalance problems and minimizes leaching.


  • No symptoms of stress due to excessive water observed at vegetative stage i.e., reduced tillering and leaf area. Excessive water means water depth greater than 5 cm for 7 days or more.
  • No symptoms of stress due to drought observed at vegetative stage, i.e., leaf rolling, leaf tip drying, reduced leaf area, height, and tiller number.
  • No symptoms of stress due to drought observed from panicle initiation to grain filling, i.e., leaf rolling, leaf tip drying, reduced panicle exertion, and many unfilled grains.

For a 120-day variety, early panicle initiation is usually at 40-45 days after transplanting (DAT) or 61-65 days after sowing (DAS) and ripening phase is usually from 70-100 DAT or 91-120 DAS.

Pest Management

No significant yield loss due to pests.

  • Proper pest management results in good seed or grain quality.
  • Damage by insect pests and diseases results in uneven sizes and discolored grains.
  • If there are plenty of weeds, there is greater mixture in the harvest.
  • There are also more biomass that could impede land leveling and preparations in the next season.

Pest Identification. If a pest or disease and its management cannot be identified, call the attention of the pest specialist (entomologist/plant pathologist) or a team of pest specialists to properly identify the organism and decide on the appropriate course of action such as the use of pesticide, biological agent or cultural management.

No significant yield loss due to insect pests, diseases, weeds, rats, snails, and birds. Significant pest damage occurs when one or more pests cause damage as described in Table 4, Table 5, and Table 6.


  • Use varieties resistant to pests prevalent in the locality. The use of resistant varieties is the first line of defense in pest management and is compatible with biological control. Change or rotate varieties every 2 to 4 croppings to disrupt insect pest and disease adaptation, thereby preventing build up of virulent pathogens and insect pests.
  • Adopt a synchronous planting scheme after a fallow period in the locality.
  • organisms in the rice ecosystem in the absence of natural-enemy killing pesticides. The indiscriminate use of pesticides reduces biodiversity and disrupts the natural balance of insect pests and beneficial organisms. Conservation of these beneficial organisms is safe, economical, and permanent. For example, long-horned grasshopper feeds on the egg mass of stemborers while spiders feed on the nymphs and adults of leafhoppers and planthoppers.

Common Insect Pests











Common Diseases





Harvest Management

Cut and threshed the crop at the right time.

  • Timely reaping and threshing ensure good grain quality, high market value, and consumer acceptance.
  • Reaping very early results in a larger percentage of immature and half-filled grains and in lower milling recovery.
  • Reaping too late leads to increased grain shattering and excessive losses in terms of breakage during milling.
  • Untimely harvesting also makes the crop more prone to bird and rat damage, and lessens the quality of seeds harvested.
  • Reaping too early or too late affects yield and seed quality.

Harvest/reap the crop when 1/5 or 20% of the grains at the base of the panicle are in hard dough stage. Press a grain from the base of the panicle between the thumb and forefinger to assess hard dough stage. Most of the grains in the panicle will be golden yellow.

Thresh the palay not later than one day after reaping for wet season (WS) and not later than two days for dry season (DS).
Use a clean thresher with the correct machine settings.

  • Harvest/reap at 20-25% grain moisture content in wet season and 18-21% moisture content in dry season. It is advisable to use a grain moisture meter.
  • Avoid piling the reaped crop in the field for more than a day as this results in heat buildup in the grain and risk to contamination and fungi infection, specifically storage fungi. This leads to grain discoloration and lowers the quality of milled rice.
  • Adjust threshing drum to the correct speed (approx. 800 rpm) to provide good initial cleaning of the harvest. A high-speed setting of threshing drum results in higher grain damage while a low speed setting increases the amount of non-threshed grain and results in grain loss.

Source: Pinoy Rice Knowledge Bank, Date accessed 27 March 2014

Sea Urchin


seaurchin1SEA URCHIN

Sea urchin is one of the major shellfish resources all over the world. In the Philippines, its commercial culture is still in its developing stage. It was in fact started primarily as a resource enhancement tool to address the severe depletion of the resource due to excessive gathering of wild stocks. An obscure cousin of the starfish, sea urchins live in shallow marine waters with its gonads or roe as its only edible part. In Japan it is regarded as a delicacy called the "uni", and is also considered as an exotic food all around Southeast Asia and the United States.

Locally known as "maritangtang" in the Ilocos Region, "kuden kuden" in Bolinao and "tuyom" in the Visayas, the initial grow-out culture of sea urchins was undertaken through sea pens at Brgy Nalvo, Sta. Maria, Ilocos Sur in 1998. In the same year, the promotion of community-based grow-out culture was started in Bolinao, Pangasinan and several verification trials were also conducted in suitable areas of Ilocos Norte and La Union Thereafter, technology innovations to improve culture methods were demonstrated and promoted for adoption. DA-BFAR-RFO-1 has been vigorously promoting the cage culture of sea urchins for years now. Assessment of potential sites was undertaken, and demonstration cages were put up in coordination with The Local Government Units (LGUs) and willing cooperators or technology adopters.
(Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 27 March 2014)

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.


Cultural Management

Production Process/Operation

Assessment and selection of the project site
Protected coves are potential sites for sea urchin farming, however, the project site will be selected with the following technical considerations:

  • existence of sea urchin stocks in the area;
  • presence of seagrass beds;
  • high water movement and tidal flushing;
  • sheltered from storms and bad weather,
  • no nearby freshwater sources such as river mouths;
  • sufficient depths (at least 1-1 5m deep at low tide) to prevent sea urchins from drying out and being exposed to freshwater in case of heavy rains;
  • free from pollution;
  • visible and accessible from the shore;
  • Should not be within a navigational route.

1. Avoid building cages in area with very low salinity because this is stressful for sea urchins and may result in mass mortality.

2. Cages should be ideally situated in a sheltered area where wild T. gratilla are naturally found.

3. Avoid areas prone to 'kulaba' or water poison.

4. Stock the cages with fresh Sargassum (brown algae) regularly even if some food still remains. This is to ensure that urchins feed at maximum rates and consequently grow fast and develop large gonads.

5. For beginners, the UP-MSI recommends to start with about 3-4 grow-out cages, each with approximately 1000 - 5000 seedstock species (about 25-500 individuals per square meter).

Cage Construction and installation

Cages used have the following dimensions, 2.4m x 1 2m x 0.6m and made of polyethylene plastic screens and plain round bars as frames The cages are installed in assessed and feasible sites, the cage bottom at 1 foot above sea floor and the cage top should be at 0.5m below water level during low tides. The cages are also set at least 2 feet apart to ensure good water flow and prevent clogging of wastes and debris.

Modular System Culture

The modular system of culture (7 cages/module) is now being recommended for sustainable production, as illustrated below.

  • stocking of juveniles every 2 months
  • transfer of stocks every 2 months
  • harvest every 2 months

In the modular system, cage 1 will be stocked every 2 months with 2,000 pcs sea urchin juveniles (1-2 cm TD) After 2 months of culture, stocks will be transferred to cages 2 and 3at 1, 000 pcs/cage Stocks from cages 2 and 3 (3-4 cm TD) will then be transferred to cages 4,5,6 and 7 at 500 pcs/cage to be cultured and harvested after 2 months reaching 7-8 cm TD. After 2 months, cage 1 can be stocked with small sizes to start the second cycle.

Note: For newly established project, cages will be initially stocked with different sizes of sea urchin juveniles to fully utilize all cages

Operation and Management

Sea urchins are cultured for a period of approximately 6-7 months or until the stocks reaches 7-8 cm test diameter (TD). The stocks are fed with sargassum or aragan once or twice a week. Each cage is liberally stocked with fresh sargassum to ensure that they feed at maximum rates for growth and development of large gonads. The cages are also regularly cleaned of leftover algae or debris each time they are fed Periodical checking of growth and survival of stocks should be undertaken.
Stripping an area of Sargassum for feeding the caged urchins may result in the eventual denudation of the algal bed. To avoid this, do not harvest Sargassum plants by pulling them up from the seafloor together with their holdfast or "roots". Use a small knife or sickle to selectively harvest only the plant's secondary branches. Leave the roots and the primary axis intact, so that the plant is able to regenerate itself for future harvesting.

Harvesting and Marketing

Harvesting is done when the stocks reached a test diameter of 7-8 cm The modular system of culture will ensure three harvests per year (Harvest every two months). Sea urchins are sold fresh or processed (roe form) in the local markets or to direct buyers like restaurants/hotel operators.
When harvesting, keep in mind that bigger urchins command a better price.
Harvesting is done after 6-8 months or when the stocks reach 7-8 cm TD.

 Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 27 March 2014

Shrimp or Prawn



Penaeus monodon is a marine crustacean that is widely reared for food. Other common names of P. monodon include giant tiger prawn, jumbo tiger prawn, blacktiger prawn, leader prawn, sugpo and grass prawn). Both sexes of Penaeus monodon reach approximately 36 centimeters (14 in) long. Females can weigh up to 650 grams (23 oz), making it the world's largest species of prawn. P. monodon is most widely cultured prawn species in the world although it is gradually losing ground to the whiteleg shrimp.

Shrimp farming has been practice for more than a century for food and the livelihood of coastal people in some Asian countries, such as Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan Province of China, Thailand and Viet Nam. (Source: Department of Agriculture-AFMIS, Date accessed 27 March 2014)

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Cultural Management

Environment-friendly Practices

This new technology on shrimp farming in brackishwater ponds incorporates pollution management which constitutes 9% of annual shrimp production cost per ha of the farmer. Pollution management is worth the cost considering that a shrimp farmer could lose it all during a disease outbreak.

1. Lowered stocking density - this may decrease harvest volume by 20-30% but the harvest value could increase by 8-10% due to bigger size and improved feed conversion. Feeding and nutrient loading is reduced by 20%, and the risk of opportunistic diseases is reduced as well.

2. Improvement of pond bottom management - this may increase plowing or tilling cost, add netcage construction to the expense but these costs could be recovered from the sale of added fish crop. Bacterial profile of sediment is improved, however, as well as water effluent quality. The pathogenic Vibrio count is reduced.

3. Crop rotation - one shrimp crop may be lost but there is some income from fish culture. Crop rotation improves sediment bacterial profile, reduces Vibrio count, reduces incidence of white spot, and ultimately allow time for organic waste to break down.

4. Improvement in feed quality - SEAFDEC/AQD has formulated a diet much improved in nutritional quality and lower nitrogen and phosphorus discharges. Farmers may also use probiotics.

5. Stocking of laboratory-screened fry - there is a cost to fry analysis and screening and waiting time for the results, but the farmer is reducing the risks for white spot and pathogenic Vibrio infections.

6. Use of greenwater technology - culture area may be reduced by 25-50% due to the requirement for bigger reservoir but cost can be recovered from the sale of fishes raised in the reservoir. There is also added expense for modifying the water supply channel. The advantage is more stable water quality, and suppression of growth of pathogenic Vibrio.

7. Use of probiotics in water and feed - this can add a cost of P20,000 to P40,000 per ha per crop but healthy, antibiotic-free shrimp is produced. Improved water quality and lower sludge accumulation are the benefits, in addition to reducing the risk of developing more virulent antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

8. Increase in aeration - addition of P150,000 to 200,000 per ha for aerators and 50-60% increase in power consumption but the shrimp grow faster and improve its feed conversion with increased dissolved oxygen levels and reduced noxious metabolites.

9. Use of settling ponds - additional cost of P2,500 to 5,000 per ha per year but settling ponds lower load of suspended solids in effluent water and reduce the sediment accumulation in receiving waters.

10. Employment of biosecurity measures - additional cost of P15,000 to 20,000 per ha per year for pond sanitation, carrier exclusion devices, filters, and worker hygiene but these measures significantly reduce the risk of introducing viral diseases to the pond facility.

Technology Profile

(1) Re-engineer farm layout
Providing a bigger reservoir; impounding a portion of the mangrove area near the ponds to where effluents may be held; and assigning sedimentation and biological treatment ponds containing fish, bivalves and seaweeds.

(2) Prepare the ponds
Drain totally. Level the pond bottom. Dig peripheral and central canals. Crack-dry. Remove the black sludge that accumulated in previous cropping. Flush the pond with water then drain. Apply either agricultural lime at 2 tons per ha or hydrated lime at 0.5 to 1 ton per ha. Till the pond bottom. Compact. Install the central and side sludge collectors. Install catwalks and feeding trays in grow-out ponds. Let in water. Position the aerators and the pumps. Apply teaseed powder at 50 kg per ha to kill predators and competitors. Apply dried chicken or cow manure at 300 kg per ha together with urea (45-0-0) at 18 kg per ha by the "tea bag" method. Fertilize again if necessary.

(3) Stock biomanipulators
In the reservoir (25% of the grow-out farm), stock biomanipulators like all-male tilapia and milkfish at 5,000 to 10,000 fish per ha. Hold water for at least a week before using it in grow-out ponds.

(4) Acclimatization
In the grow-out ponds, acclimate then stock disease-free shrimp (at least postlarvae day 18) at 25 pieces per m2, which gives the highest net profit per ha of P1.8 million. Stocking lower at 15 pieces per m2 can get you P1.1 million; while stocking higher at 40 pieces per m2 gives only P0.6 million. Biomanipulators may be stocked inside walled net enclosures (10 x 10 x 1.5 m) that are placed in the middle of the grow-out ponds. These fishes can feed on the sludge that the paddle-wheel aerators tend to deposit at the center. The sides of the ponds may also be enclosed similarly and stocked with biomanipulators.

(5) Follow the usual pond routine
Feed according to the feed manufacturer's instructions, sample stock regularly to adjust feeding demand, monitor water quality and bacterial populations regularly, keep complete records. If probiotics is an option, follow the application rate in the label. Operate the aerators from 6 pm to 6 am.

(6) Discharging water
In the low discharge system, a small amount of water is discharged from the grow-out pond and released to the sea after passing through the settling or mangrove impoundment. To be effective, hold pond effluents in mangroves for 6 hours or more.

(7) Water circulation
In the recirculating system, effluents from the grow-out pond are reused after passing through the treatment pond. Water is fully circulated by pumping twice, first from the head reservoir to the grow-out pond and then from the treatment pond to the grow-out pond.

(8) Filtration system
In treatment ponds, the effluent from the grow-out ponds passes through several hurdles. Note that the main drain canal can serve as one of the treatment ponds. Install baffles to serve as mechanical filtration units and to settle suspended solids. Dissolved nutrients can be taken up by biofilters like oysters, the seaweed Gracilaria, and green mussel, and these are stocked in the treatment ponds. Finally, a filter box fitted with a 2 hp submersible pump is installed at the end of the pond.

(9) Harvesting
Harvest in 4-5 months by totally draining the ponds. Chill and sort before packing shrimp. Average weight is at least 25 grams.

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 27 March 2014