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FRUIT CROPS

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VEGETABLE CROPS

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PLANTATION CROPS

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LIVESTOCK

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ROOT CROPS

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FISHERIES AQUATIC AND MARINE

Bottle Gourd

Description

..BOTTLE GOURD

Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria [Molina] Standley) is commonly called "upo" among the Tagalog. It is locally known as "Tabungaw" in Ilocano and "Kandol" in Ibanag. This is a herbaceous, annual climbing plant with long strong tendrils and simple leaves. Fruits are globular, bottle or club-shaped and reaches up to one meter long. When the fruit matures, the rind is hard and durable.

Young fruits are usually cooked as vegetable dish. Young shoots are also consumed as green vegetables and the seeds are popular snack food as "kutchi". Upo contains carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. The juice from green upo fruits is good for the treatment of chest pains, stomach acidity, indigestion, ulcer, epilepsy, insanity and other nervous diseases. The leaves are used to treat skin diseases. Boiled seeds are also good for the treatment of boils. The hard rind of dried matured fruits can be made into containers, hats, decorative handicrafts, floats, and musical instruments. (Source: Department of Agriculture- Region II, Date accessed 24 March 2014)

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance

Cultural Management

 

Planting and Fertilization

One hectare requires 2 kg seeds. Soak seeds in water for 24 hours and wrap in moist cloth until the seed coat breaks. Sow seeds by drilling 2 seeds per hill. Cover with a thin layer of soil. A planting distance of 1 m between hills and 3-4 m between rows is recommended. The soil should be light with good aeration.

Apply 20 g/hill of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at planting. Side-dress 10 g/hill of urea (46-0-0) at early vining stage (30 DAP). After 15 days, mix two parts urea and one part muriate of potash (0-0-60) and apply as side-dress at 10 g/hill.

Trellising and Pruning

Use trellis to protect the fruits from rotting and malformation. Construct vertical and overhead trellis using ipil-ipil or bamboo poles, wires, abaca twines, or straw twines.
Train vines to climb a vertical pole or ladder until it reaches the overhead trellis. Remove lower lateral branches that appear on the climbing part of the main stem to promote branching and fruiting.

Pest and Disease Management

Insect pests like leaf folder, fruit fly, and yellow beetle, as well as foliar disease like downy mildew, powdery mildew, anthracnose and Cercospora leaf spot attack bottle gourd. Monitoring for pests should be done regularly. Remove infected fruits and leaves to avoid build-up of pest population. Observe strict sanitation to control insect pests and diseases

Harvesting

Fruits develop fast & require much attention at harvest time. It usually takes 15 days for fruits to reach marketable stage from the day of fruit set. The fruits are better harvested using sharp knives to cut the peduncle approximately 5 cm long.

Source: Department of Agriculture- Region II, Date accessed 24 March 2014

Cabbage

Description

..CABBAGE

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is considered an important part of a well-balanced diet. It is usually eaten fresh or combined with other food. It contains protein, carbohydrates, vitamin and different minerals which are essential body requirements.

Cabbage is the most widely grown crucifer locally. It grows best in a cool and moist climate like Baguio. It can be grown successfully in the lowlands during the cooler months of the year. It thrives best in sandy or sandy-loam soil for rapid growth. For late maturing varieties where large yield is an important consideration, clay loam or silty loam soils are preferred. Cabbage strives best on slightly acidic soils. (Source: Department of Agriculture- Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014)

For Prices and Market trends, you may visit the Agriculture and Fisheries Market Information System.

For Cost and Returns, you may visit the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management

 

Climate and Soil Requirements

Climatic conditions for growing cabbages would be dependent on what variety is used. Most cabbage varieties grow well in mid and high elevations during dry season. Some varieties also perform well during the wet season. While in low elevations, there are also some varieties that can perform well during the dry, cool months.
Its temperature requirement usually ranges from 15 – 20 °C but may vary according to its variety used. Cabbage can be planted in most soils, but clay loams to sandy loam are best. A soil pH best suited cabbage ranges from 6.0 – 6.8.

Land Preparation

The land must be plowed and harrowed several times to pulverize the soil. Beds should be raised 30cm high and 1 meter wide. The distance between beds should be 25 cm.
If furrow irrigation is used, the optimal bed width is 30 cm. If hand watering is used, the bed width could be increased to 1 meter.

Crop Establishment

Seedbed Preparation: Soil mixture of one part burned rice hull, part coir dust, 1 part garden soil, 1 part compost should be prepared. Strerilize the soil by burning rice straw or application of boiling water

Construction of Temporary Roof: Construct temporary roof to protect the seedlings from too much heat during the dry season and excessive rains during the rainy season. Gradually remove the roofing materials as the seedlings grow to expose them to full sunlight.

Care of Seedlings: Water the seedbed once a day during the first three days after sowing. Apply starter solution by dissolving 1 tbsp urea in 1 gallon of water. Water the seedlings immediately. Harden the plants 7-10 days before transplanting by exposing the seedlings to full sunlight and gradually withdrawing water until the seedlings reach temporary wilting

Transplanting: Water the seedbeds and gently uproot the seedlings. Seedlings are transplanted at 40 x 60 spacing to produce bigger and heavier size. Spacing can be reduced to increase population per hectare. Basal fertilizer may be applied at 10g 14-14-14-/hill. Irrigate before and after transplanting. Mulch with rice straw, rice hull or plastic mulch to prevent weed growth and conserve soil moisture. It is best to intercrop with bunching onion, bulb onion, garlic, kutsai, tomato, marigold, or other crops to minimize insect pests.

Nutrient Management

Manure or compost should be combined with commercial fertilizer and applied in the soil before planting during the growing period. Application of 14-14-14 at the rate of 30g per plant should be done 3-5 days after transplanting. Fifteen days after the basal application, apply urea at 10-15 g per plant. Second sidedressing should be done 15 days after the first sidedressing with the same amount.
Cultivate and water the plants alternately before heading stage. Weeding should be done when the seedlings are about 6 to 8 inches tall.

Another applicable method of weeding cabbage is by cultivating the space between the rows and hills. Shallow cultivation is also recommended to prevent root injuries of the plant. First weeding should be done one week after transplanting. The frequency of the succeeding weeding operations will depend upon the growth and emergence of the weds. Clean culture is highly recommended.

Water Management

Irrigation can be applied either by hand watering or by furrow irrigation. Adequate hand watering should be done immediately after sowing, during germination and after transplanting. Weekly irrigation is recommended.

During the dry season, irrigate before transplanting. Repeat every 7-10 days for furrow irrigation and 2-3 times per week for sprinkler irrigation. Mulching helps minimize irrigation frequency.

Pest Management

Pests:


1. Diamond Backmoth (Plutella xylostella L.)
Nature of damage: The young light green larvae first feed on the leaves as miners, then progressively feed by making small holes.
Control: Spray with insecticides at recommended rates. Another is to use neem leaves to control pests at the rate of 500g neem leaves/liter of water

2. Common Cutworm (Spodoptera litura)
Nature of damage: Feed on young and mature leaves of the host making large holes on leaf blades
Control: Spray with insecticides

3. Cabbage Moth (Croccidolomia binotalis)
Nature of damage: Larvae feed on the leaves with preference on the growing point or bud and bore into the forming heads.
Control: Use neem leaves extract to control pests

4. Aphids
Nature of damage: Soft-bodied insects that cluster on young leaves and lower side of old leaves.
Control: Remove the affected plant parts and burn. Spray with insecticides.

Diseases:


1. Damping off
Nature of damage: Falling down of seedlings just after germination. The base of the plant stem is drying out.
Control: Avoid too much watering. Spray fungicide.

2. Head Rot
Nature of damage: Caused by fungus present in the soil. Attacks the plants before early head formation and maturity. Infected plants start to decay at the base of non-wrapper leaves which become wilted and pallid. The plant turns brown then black and decays.
Control: Remove the affected plants/ plant parts and bury or burn. Avoid soiling of cabbage leaves during cultivation. Irrigate the field regularly to keep the soil temperature low. Apply fungicide at the base of the plant.

3. Anthracnose of Pepper
Nature of damage: Anthractose may occur in the field and develop as a post- harvest decay of pepper fruits. Typical symptons appear on mature fruits such as small water-soaked sunken lesions that expand rapidly. Lesions may be covered with raised, dark, fungal tissues which may appear in concentric rings.
Disease Management: Be sure to clean seeds. Practice crop rotation. Fungicides like Mancozeb or Benomyl may be used.

4. Cercospora Leaf Spot
Nature of damage: Early symptoms appear as small, circular, water-soaked spots on leaves which later enlarge up to 1 cm or more in diameter. Typical lesions are brown and circular with small to large light gray centers and dark brown margins. Several spots may coalesce causing the entire leaf to turn yellow and drop without yellowing.
Disease Management: Collect and burn all leaves and stems.

Pest and Disease Management

Cabbage heads are ready for harvesting 55-60 days after transplanting. That is when the heads become firm and compact. Include several wrapper leaver for protection. Discard and bury rotting heads or heap in compost pits. Treat the base of the marketable heads with lime or alum solution to prevent rotting.

The heads will split when over mature; rapid growth due to excess moisture and fertility will also cause splitting.

Source: Department of Agriculture- Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014

 

Cacao

Description

..CACAO

Cacao (Scientific Name: Theobroma cacao L.) is the name used for trees and the word "cocoa" for manufactured products. Cacao is a tropical crop with limits of cultivation of 20 degrees north and south latitude. It is mainly grown on low elevations usually below 300 meters with optimum temperatures of 21 to 32 degrees. Most cocoa, without irrigation, is grown with rainfall of above 1,300 mm. The rainfall should be well distributed, preferably with 100 mm or more per month. Cacao requires a well-drained, well-aerated soil with good crumb structure and adequate supply of water and nutrients. The best soils are aggregated clays or loams. First harvest takes 3 to 4 years from planting. Cacao's economic life is about 25-30 years.

Cacao is generally a smallholder or backyard crop. There are about 479,000 farms (Census of Agriculture, 1991) on 17,300 ha in 1991, or an average of 36 square meters or about 50 trees. Most of the farms are backyard plots. 
(Source: Congressional Oversight Committee on Agricultural and Fisheries Modernization Date accessed 24 March 2014)

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management

 

Propagation by Seeds

In any crop, good production and income generation start with ensuring the best quality available for the variety of the crop being produced. Aside from choosing the variety, propagation techniques and nursery management will be described in this section.

1. Collect seeds only from ripe and healthy pods.
2. Select seeds that are uniform in size. Discard seeds that are swollen and of different shape
3. Select bigger seeds since the possibility high that they would produce vigorous and fast growing seedlings are high.
4. Remove mucilage that covers the seeds by rubbing the seeds with sawdust or sand.
5. Wash the seeds to effectively remove the mucilage.
6. Cacao seeds are sensitive to fungal attacks and could lead to non-germination. It is best to soak cleaned seeds in fungicide solution for about 10 minutes. Follow strictly instructions indicated in labels.
7. Spread the seeds on wet sacks and cover with wet newspaper for 24 hrs.
8. Keep it moist but well ventilated to avoid formation of fungi.
9. Start collecting seeds that show sign of germination (a pig tail-like root appears on one side). Usually, germination starts after two days.
10. Sow the pre-germinated seeds not more than 1 cm deep in prepared polybags. Be sure seeds are sown with the pigtail-root pointed downwards.
11. Use select 8" x 10" polybags. The soil must reach 2 to 3 cm from the top of the plastic bag.

Potting medium
mix completely composted organic materials to improve the soil characteristics such as water holding capacity, nutrient content and soil texture. If possible sterilize soil by boiling soil with water in drums or other convenient containers. In some cases, spraying formaline solutions also help sterilize soils. Cheapest way to sterilize soil is the use solar drying. Loamy to sandy loam soils are the most suitable medium in terms of physical property for raising seedlings.Liming is used for soils with less than pH 5.

 

Nursery Establishment and Management

Nursery establishment for cacao seedling:
Similar to most tree crop nurseries, young seedlings will require ample shading, constant supply of clean water and drainage. There are also other requirements written in the books but the ones stated here are general characteristics of nursery good for cacao seedlings.

    1. Choose site which are near roads so that new roads will not be necessary.

    2. Choose flat grounds. Work area must not entail more effort from uneven ground work place.

    3. Availability of quality water sources like good water table for shallow wells, presence of irrigation canals or other natural water source like river or creeks. Also, free from saline waters.Free from water-logging and presence of nearby drainage facilities.

    4. For cacao seedlings, shading material is a must. 0 to 2 month old seedlings require 70 to 80% shade. However, gradual removal of shading is recommended to prepare seedlings for field planting. Shading materials may use materials in the vicinity of the nursery itself. This is to avoid additional expenditures.

    5. The period of keeping the seedlings in the nursery affects the arrangement of the bags. Polybag arrangement must be systematically carried out to facilitate maintenance and grafting. Normally, a twin row with alternate path of 45 cm in width is recommended. In order to enhance the seedling growth and to avoid the seedling etiolation, the seedlings are usually spaced further apart from each other when the seedlings are 2 to 3 months old. The distance is 25 to 30 cm apart starting from the middle point of the polybag. The distance gradually increases when the seedlings are kept in the nursery for a longer period.

Weeding

Weeds do not normally cause problems in the nursery and those that appear can be removed without much expenditure on labor. On the other hand, weeds growing along spaces in between the blocks may be controlled by cutting down with scythes. The use of herbicide is not recommended. Therefore weeding could be done manually or by mulching with available materials such as rice hull.

Fertilization

Fertilizer application is carried out after the first leaf hardens and should be based on the result of soil analysis. If analysis is not available, incorporate 15-35 grams of diammonium phosphate (18-48-0) per bag depending on the size of polybag. The use of granular fertilizer is also done when the leaves are dry to avoid leaf scorching.

Culling/Selection

To ensure uniform growth and development of the seedlings to be planted in the field, cull out the poor-growing seedlings in the nursery. This practice may be carried out by removing the bags containing seeds which did not germinate and small, crinkled seedlings.

Transplanting

To reduce the seedling shock during transplanting, it is necessary to rotate the polybag to a few degrees one week before field planting. It is done for the seedlings whose leaves have hardened and especially for those which roots have penetrated the ground. Watering has to be done for a few days later. Field planting must be started at the onset of the rainy season. Unless irrigation is available, field planting during the dry season is not advisable.

Propagation

Vegetative propagation gives more advantage in terms of reproduction of true-to-type trees, more uniform growth, early to bear flowers, and the clone perpetuates most if not all important characters of the original seedling mother tree like pod value, bean size, fruit wall thickness and others. Major consideration in vegetative propagation is the use of the selected varieties mentioned above.

      1. Patch Budding - This is the propagation of true-to-type trees using buds from any of the nine NSIC approved clones.

      2. Nodal Grafting - Propagation on the sides of the seedling using nodes.

      3. Conventional cleft grafting - This propagation technique is similar to the procedure used in grafting mangoes. Rootstocks are cut horizontally leaving only two leaves behind. Scion of selected variety is attached to rootstocks with an inverted V shape and fastened to each other using thin plastic sheet covering all wounds to prevent drying.

*The success factors for all types of grafting and budding are:

        1. Use healthy bud wood with active buds

        2. Use budwood within 2 days of collection and store and transport in moist and cool conditions.

        3. Do not collect bud wood from trees that are recovering from heavy cropping.

        4. Make sure bud wood is of right age and thickness for the rootstock.

        5. Only use a sharp knife and keep it only for grafting or budding- nothing else.

        6. Clean knives and secateuers and other tools with alcohol, before and after grafting and budding, to minimise disease transfer.

        7. Do not place tools onto the ground.

        8. Avoid grafting in very hot and very dry periods, and also in very wet periods.

        9. Make sure rootstock are the right age and condition for grafting and budding.

        10. Manage shade and water very carefully.

        11. Make a secure and evenly shaded nursery.

Planting and Farm Establishment

Soil Requirement

Best soil is made-up of aggregated clay or loamy sand with 50% sand, 30-40% clay, and 10-20% silt.
Deep soil, about 150 cm, highly favors the growth of cacao.
pH = 5.0 to 6.5

Climatic Requirement

    1. Ideal rainfall for cacao cultivation ranges from 1250 to 3000 mm per annum, preferably 1500-2000 mm with dry season of not more than 3 months.

    2. Temperature ideal for cacao lies between a mean maximum of 30-32°C and mean minimum of 18°C.

    3. Altitude of the area should lie between 300-1200 meters above sea level. Suitable temperature is generally found in an altitude up to 700 m.

    4. Cacao thrives best in areas under Type IV climate which has an evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year.


Establishment of Shade Crops

The leaves of the cocoa seedlings are tender and will be burnt by direct sunlight. Therefore, in order to protect them and ensure their survival and health, the seedlings must be shaded from direct sunlight during the first few years. Direct sunlight shuts off the ability of cocoa leaves to produce carbohydrates through photosynthesis. Carbohydrate is the source of energy for growth. If no energy is produced, the tree cannot grow or produce cocoa pods.

Only older cocoa trees can survive the direct rays of the sun. The upper leaves, which receive direct sunlight, shade the lower leaves that provide energy for the tree and the cocoa fruit to grow. However, if there is too much shade, cocoa leaves cannot perform photosynthesis and there is no energy for growth.
Newly planted cocoa trees need 75% shade (25% direct sunlight overall) during their first year. This can be reduced to a 50% level of overall shade in their second year. After that, the pod bearing cocoa trees need to be shaded only about 25% density of direct sunlight for the rest of the cocoa tree's life span.

Permanent shade crops that have a thin canopy, tall trunk and do not defoliate seasonally are ideal to intercrop with cocoa trees for long periods. Some suitable crop bearing varieties are coconut, cashew, longan, durian, mango and mangosteen. Both cacao and shade trees can be planted at 6 x 3 m.

In the case that shade crops (both temporary and permanent) do not create enough shade for cocoa seedlings growth, temporary structures can be made from other, easily available materials such as palm fronds, sugar cane leaf, and etc.

 

Staking and Spacing

    1. Planting points are to be marked with stakes using suitable size and length of cable wire or guide from straight line planting.

    2. Most common distance
      - High density 1.5 to 2.0 x 6.0 m = 2,300 trees/ha. Double hedge row
      - Low density = 3 x 2m = 1666 plants/ha or 2.5 x 2.5 m = 1600 plants/ha

    3. Depending on the shade from existing trees and tree crops, and soil fertility, the planting density of cocoa varies from 400-1100 plants/ha. In the case of intercropping in coconut and cashew, the density of cocoa averages about 600 plants/ha. Basal fertilizers are very important to enhance the growth of young cocoa trees in the establishment stage.

Planting

    1. Right time to plant is during early morning or late afternoon.

    2. It is not advisable to plant seedling with young and soft flush leaves as they are susceptible to sunburn, planting shocks or stress.

    3. Best season to plant in the field is during the onset of rainy season.

    4. Size of the hole should be big enough to accommodate the ball of the soil mass.

    5. Normally, a hole of 30 cm wide x 30 cm long and 30 cm deep.

    6. In holing, the surface of soil should be separated from the sub-soil.

Weeding

Manual by ring weeding method 1 meter radius from the stem as removed with the use of sickle.

Fertilization

In the absence of soil analysis (PCARRD, 1989) recommended rates of fertilizer application for various ages of trees as shown below.

Prunning

Pruning is done to increase cacao production. Reduce pest and diseases infestation. Control the shape and height of the tree. Control the shape and height of the tree, to ensure easy access for harvesting

      1. Pruning cocoa trees can increase production, make tree maintenance easier, and reduce pest infestation and diseases

      2. Maintenance pruning starts with regularly removing the low hanging branches or those that grow downwards.

      3. Second remove regularly the chupons on the stem.

      4. Also remove all shoots and additional branches that are within 60 cm of the jorquette. Removal of shoots is necessary to avoid production of non-essential branches.

      5. Furthermore, it is important to remove regularly all dead, diseased and badly damaged branches.

      6. Top pruning of the highest branches ( up to 4 meters) in order to keep the tree short for easy regular harvesting and maintenance.

      7. In addition to this it is recommended to open the center of the tree by pruning in the shape of a champagne glass in order to reduce humidity and increase sunshine.

      8. The cocoa pod borer does not like the sunshine and increased wind. The additional sunshine to the stem will increase flowering as well.

      9. The best time for heavy pruning is after the high production cycle, approximately one month before the rainy season. After pruning it is recommended to apply fertilizer.

      10. Pruning has to be done regularly and correctly, results in more pods on the tree with less infestation and diseases.

 

Pest and Disease Management

Most common cacao pests in the Philippines are: Cacao Pod Borer, Vascular Streak Dieback, Helopeltis and Cacao Stem Borer. Whereas, the most common cacao disease is Black Pod.

1. Cacao Pod Borer (Conopormorpha cramelerella)

    • Regular harvesting (weekly harvesting of all ripe pods) in order to break the lifecycle of the pest.
    • Sanitation; which includes to bury all empty cacao pod husks, but also to remove all other diseased pods, black pods, and pods eaten by animals from the trees
    • Pruning; to increase the sunlight, which the pest does not favor.
    • Bagging or sleeving of the young pods with newspaper and stapler (or plastic bag)
    • Fertilizer; to increase the general health of the tree and in addition increasing cacao production.

2. Vascular Streak Dieback (caused by Oncobasidium theobromae)

    • Sanitation pruning - cut off infected branches at 30 cm below the infected area, and burn the infested cuttings
    • Nurseries should use polyethylene roofing to ensure spores cannot land on the seedlings
    • Shade on the cacao trees should be reduced to lower humidity
    • Plant VSD tolerant varieties such as hybrids PA 173 x SCA 9, PA 138 x SCA 9, ICS 39 x SCA 6, PA 156 x IMC 67, PA 156 x SCA 9, ICS 95 x SCA 6, clones PBC 123, PBC 159, ICS 95 and others.

3.  Black Pod Rot and Canker Control Method (caused by Phytophtora palmivora)

    • Frequent harvesting to avoid pathogen sporulation.
    • Harvest all the infested, dead and mummified pods and ideally destroy or bury them.
    • Prune the cacao trees and shade trees to reduce humidity.
    • Have a good drainage system so that the spores cannot spread in puddles of water.
    • Trees that have died due to tree canker should be cut down and destroyed.
    • Scraping off the bark from the infected area and put paint or soap on it.

4. Helopeltis Control method (Helopeltis: a sap-sucking bud)

    • Typically, Helopeltis likes open canopies and sunlight penetration. Still, one should prune the trees carefully and reduce shade if it is too heavy - this is to allow better visibility on the disease and better application of control methods. (Note: if pruning is too rigorous, new chupons will grow which are a feeding ground for Helopeltis).
    • General sanitation of farm
    • Regular harvesting

5. Stem Borer Control Method (Zeuzera)

    • Cut off infested braches at 40 cm below the lowest larvae hole. These branches should be destroyed.
    • After pruning of an infested tree, big branches, especially those with stem borer holes, should be burned.
    • The hole can be covered or plugged with mud or wood to prevent the larva to come out, so that it cannot feed and hatch, or cannot breathe.
    • Poking the larvae out with a piece of wire.
    • Squirt some soap solution in the exit hole. After a while, the larva will emerge from the hole, probably driven out by the unpleasant soap fume. Catch and kill the Stem Borer.

Source: Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014

Calamansi

Description

..CALAMANSI

The calamansi (citrus madurencis) is considered as one of the major fruit crops in the Philippines, which is indigenous to the country. This plant is characterized by wing-like appendages on the leaf stalks and white or purplish flowers. Its fruit has either a spongy or leathery rind with a juicy pulp that is divided into sections. Calamansi is said to be a good source of vitamin C and has been processed into syrups, juices, concentrates, and purees. Its juice is used as flavouring or as an additive in various food preparations to enhance iron absorption. It can also be a
preserve ingredient for sweet pickles or marmalade. Its trees have an average life span of five years. Peak season of calamansi is during the months of June to October and lean months from November to May. (Source: Department of Agriculture- Agriculture and Fisheries Market Information System, Date accessed 25 March 2014)

For Cost and Returns, you may visit the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

 

Cultural Management

Soil and Climatic Requirements

It is easy to cultivate calamansi. This plant grows well in cool and elevated areas and in sandy soils rich in organic matter. Waterlogged areas are not suitable for cultivation because calamansi plants cannot tolerate too much moisture.

Propagation

Calamansi can be propagated by seeds, still, it is much better to grow this citrus crop using its vegetative parts. It is best to buy planting materials from reliable sources, particularly from the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI), or government agency under the Department of Agriculture.

Planting

Establish the planting materials at the start of the rainy season. Dig a hole, at least 40 cm wide and 40 cm deep. Set the seedling into the hole and put back the dug soil mixed with compost. Water the plant daily, at least every morning. The usual distance for planting calamansi is five meters between plants.

Fertilization

To produce big, luscious fruits, it is recommended to fertilize the plants regularly. Apply 50 g to 100g ammonium sulfate or urea, around each tree one month after planting. Do this every four (4) months but on the second year, increase the amount of fertilizer to 200g or 300g. Use the same kind of fertilizer per tree every four months thereafter.

The tree bears fruit on the fourth year, it is best to apply complete fertilizer, like ammophos and potash, to increase fruit yield at the rate of 500g per tree. At eight (8) to ten (10) years old, apply more fertilizers to the trees, from two to three kg per tree, three times a year. First, during the rainy season before the flowering stage; next, two months after flowering, and last, after harvesting.

To properly apply the fertilizer, mix it with the soil. It is also good to cover the soil around each tree with dry leaves to conserve moisture. Weed from time to time.


Pests and Diseases Management

To keep the trees healthy and allow them to attain maximum yield, it is always best to protect them from pests and diseases. Pests in calamansi are easy to spot.

1. Citrus bark borers - Zigzag marks, savoyed cuts, and rugged edges on the bark indicate that the tree is infested with citrus bark borers. These are light brown or bluish-black beetles that lay their eggs in the cuts and cavities of the calamansi bark. When the eggs hatch, the larvae feed on the bark and leaves. To control the citrus bark borers, spray the trees with pesticides recommended for citrus trees. To prevent the pest from spreading, cut off the infected parts and burn them.

2. Aphid- Greenish or brownish insect not only retards the plant's growth, but also acts as a disease carrier. To control, spray the trees with pesticides recommended for aphids but if the pests have already attacked, cut off the infected parts of the plants and burn them.

Other harmful pests of the calamansi are the Purple Scale and Glover's Scale. These pests suck the tree's sap until its leaves and fruits wither and fall, and the tree finally dies.

Aside from pests, the calamansi is also prone to diseases, such as gummosis, citrus canker, and citrus scab.

1. Gummosis - caused by either a lack of, or an excess of fertilizer, or damage from insect pests or machinery. The disease is marked by a dark sticky substance or gum oozing out of the infected branches and trunk. As the disease worsens, gum secretion increases. It is recommended that as soon as this gum-like substance is noticed, spray the trees with chemicals especially recommended for gummosis control. Apply the chemical directly to the diseased bark.

2. Citrus canker- a disease caused by bacteria, is characterized by raised lesions and glazed margins, with an oily appearance. Citrus canker affects the leaves, twigs, branches and the fruits. To control the canker, spray the trees with fungicide solutions when the trees area at dormant stage. Consult the dealers of fungicides for proper application of the chemicals.

3. Citrus scab - a disease caused by a fungus. It starts as a small pale-orange, somewhat circular, elevated spot on the leaf. A severely infected leaf becomes so distorted, crinkled and stunted that whatever remains has very little semblance to a normal leaf. To control this disease, spray with a copper fungicide solution. Following the manufacturer's recommended application or formula. Spray when new flushes of growth have developed, or during blooming stage when two-thirds of the petals have fallen and, also two weeks thereafter until the fruits are half mature.


Harvesting

Calamansi trees will start to bear fruit one or two years after planting. To harvest, pick the fruits from the branch, either by hand or by using a pair of scissors. Take extra care to prevent damage to the branches or to the leaves. To keep the fruit fresh, leave a portion of the stem attached to the fruit and avoid injury to the skin when harvesting.

Source: Pinoyagribusiness.com, Date accessed 25 March 2014

Carrot

Description

..CARROT

Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a biennial crop. The leaves are feather like with long petioles and they are severally divided into sections. The sheath of the petiole opens at the base. The flowers are white, small and borne in compound terminal umbels. Carrot is propagated by seeds. The thickened fleshy root is the edible portion. The shape, color and size of the root vary according to varieties. Carrot originated from Central Asia with Afghanistan as the primary center of origin. It is one of the most important vegetables commonly grown in the Philippine highlands.

One of the best sources of beta carotene is commonly grown in high elevation like Mountain Province. But through variety and adaptability trials, some carrot varieties could be grown now in medium elevations and in lowland areas. (Source: Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014)

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Cultural Management

 

Climatic and Soil Requirements

Carrot grows best in high elevation areas 1,000 m above sea level. Under such conditions, carrots are more succulent and less fibrous, with smother texture and deeper color. Roots attain optimal color when air temperature is 15-21 °C, but colors deepen rapidly in this temperature range about three weeks before harvest. Temperature below 10 °C and above 30 °C reduce quality and yield of carrots.

Carrot can be planted in low and mid elevation areas, but only during the coolest months. Otherwise, the roots will be fibrous, lighter in color, and deformed. It grows best in deep sandy loam soil rich in organic matter with pH ranging from 5.5 to 6.8.

Recommended Varieties:
Practically, all varieties in the Philippines are of the Chantenay type. Open pollinated (OP) and hybrid varieties are available commercially.

For mid and high elevation areas:
OP Varieties – Kuroda, New Koroda OP, Nikko Kuroda, KS Kuroda, Super Kuroda, New Kuroda Guson, Kuroda Max, Kuroda Improved, Chunlong, Kuroda Selection, Kuroda Gold, Terracota, Kuroda EW 35, Royal Chantenay
F1 Hybrids – Beniyama, S-505, Hybrid Sigma, Winter, All Season Cross, Rain Winner, Terracotta F1

For low elevation areas:
Kuroda strains such as EW 35 and Terracotta.

Land Preparation

The land should be plowed and harrowed several times until a fine filth is attained. Prepare raised beds 20cm high, 0.7-0.8m wide, and 0.3m apart. Pulverize the soil and incorporate fully decomposed chicken at 3-5 t/ha and complete fertilizer at 3-5 bags/ha one week before planting.
Thorough field preparation is very necessary for the plant because it is small- seeded and usually planted direct in the field. Crops planted in a well-prepared field seem to have better well-shaped, marketable roots than plants grown in a poorly prepared soil which tend to have irregularly-shaped roots.

Crop Establishment

One hectare of carrots would require 6 to 8 kg seeds. The seeds are uniformly distributed in furrows and covered with fine soil at about 2 cm thick. It may take about 2 weeks from sowing to complete the emergence of the seedlings.
In low elevation areas, the best time to plant is from the last week of October up to February or during the coolest part of the year. In the highlands, planting can be done throughout the year.

Nutrient Management

Fertilizing
The general fertilizer recommendation is 126 kg/ha N, 71 kg/ha P2O5, and 175 kg/ha K2O. However, fertilization should be based on soil analysis. Apply organic fertilizers such as well decomposed manure or compost at 3-5 t/ha 1-2 weeks before planting to contribute 60-100 kg NPK and micronutrients. The remaining nutrient requirement can be applied at 30 days from sowing, just after weeding and thinning. Cover the fertilizer with soil during hilling up. Tea manure and fermented plant juice (FPJ) may also be used to improve soil fertility.

To prepare tea manure, soak ¾ sack of dried cow or horse manure in ¾ plastic drum (200-L capacity) of water. Soak for 5-7 days with frequent stirring. Dilute tea manure in up to 20 parts water and spray on the leavers at 1-2 weeks interval. To prepare FPJ, mix three parts chopped plant shoots or banana trunk with one part raw sugar or molasses. Ferment mixture for 5-7 days. Dilute 1 part FPJ to 20-40 parts water and drench on the plots or use as foliar fertilizer.

Water Management
Carrot needs a lot of moisture during the first 30 days of growth. Irregular watering leads to cracking and forking. Water every 5-7 days or as needed.
Put mulch after planting and water the beds. Mulch with rice straws or any other mulching materials to minimize weed growth and moisture loss. After two weeks or after the seeds have germinated, remove the mulch and put mulch between rows.

Thinning and Hilling Up
Thinning is done to provide enough space to the growing roots. Start thinning at 30 days after sowing, at a spacing of 10cm between plants. Hill up immediately after thinning to cover the sidedressed fertilizer. Second weeding and hilling up is done 45 days after the first weeding.

Pests and Diseases Management

Pests:
1. Cutworm
Spray with biological insecticide such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV) following the recommended rates. If needed, spray with inseticide like fipronil, fevalerate, permethrin, or other registered chemicals following the recommended rates.

2. Mole Cricket
Use biological sprays such as Bt and NPV. Spray with pesticides such as diazinon following the recommended rates. Use carbofuran following the recommended rates, as a last resort.

3. Slugs
Spread rice hull ash or slug pellets around the plots just to cover the soil

4. Aphids
Spray with hot pepper extract (100g macerated hot pepper / 16L water). If needed, spray carbaryl or malathion following the recommended rates.

5. Armyworm
Spray with Bt following the recommended rates. Maintain populations of ground beetles and tachinid flies. Spread ash baits along the field borders. If needed, spray recommended pesticide such as carbaryl, fenvalerate, or malathion following the recommended rates.

Diseases:
1. Powdery Mildew
Spray sulfur based fungicides or mancozeb following the recommended rates

2. Bacterial Soft Rot
Avoid injury to the roots during harvest and remove the infected roots.

3. Root-knot
Practice crop rotation with non-host crops like corn. Plant marigold by broadcasting the seeds in between seasons. Plow under the marigold plants at land preparation. Marigold may also be intercropped along borders and alleys.

4. Alternaria blight
Use resistant or tolerant varieties such as Terracotta and S-505. If infection is severe, spray appropriate fungicides such as mancozeb and chlorothalonil following the recommended rates.

Harvest and Post-Harvest

Harvesting- Carrots can be harvested 2-3 months after sowing, depending on the variety used. Harvest the carrots if the leaves turn yellowish and the roots are big enough. Loosen the soil using a spading fork then pull the carrot roots carefully. Remove split roots. Haul the roots to the packing house immediately after harvest. Yields are usually 20-30 t/ha under favorable and good management.

Postharvest Handling- cut the leaves 5-8cm from the shoulder. Wash the roots and air-dry. Sort and classify according to size and appearance. Roots that are cracked, deformed, and forked are considered non-marketable, but can still be cooked or processed

Source: Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014