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FRUIT CROPS

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VEGETABLE CROPS

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PLANTATION CROPS

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LIVESTOCK

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ROOT CROPS

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FISHERIES AQUATIC AND MARINE

Squash

Description

squash1SQUASH

Squash, botanically known as Cucurbita maxima L., is commonly grown the Philippines throughout the year. It is usually grown in home gardens and in commercial scale for its fruits, young shoots, flowers and seeds. In some places, intercropping squash with other crops such as corn, sugarcane, and coconut is practiced. Like other cucurbits, squash is recognized as an important source of vitamins and minerals. For best yield and profit, planting months must be from October to December, and May to July in hilly areas. 
(Source: PhilRice- Pinoy Rice Knowledge Bank, Date Accessed 27 March 2014)

By Products

      • Squash Seeds

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management

 

Land Preparation

Plow and harrow the field alternately 2-3 times. Furrow the field at a row spacing of 2 meters. Prepare hills at 1 meter apart. Incorporate organic fertilizer and complete fertilizer thoroughly with the soil at planting.

Planting and Cultivation

Plant 2-3 seeds per hill. Remove weak seedlings and leave two
plants per hill when the first true leaf has developed.

Squash can be grown with minimum tillage but for best result, plowing and harrowing the field two to three times is recommended. One to two seed are planted per hill and applied with rice straw or plastic mulch is recommended to maintain soil moisture and minimize growth of weeds. Squash can tolerate drought but regular irrigation, especially during dry season enhances crop performance.

When pollinators are few, hand-pollinate the female flower between 6:00 and 8:00 in the morning to increase fruit setting.

Fertilizer Application and Irrigation

squash2

Irrigate once week with one liter/hill every other day. Irrigate also every after fertilizer application. Do not irrigate when the fruits have reached the matured green stage

Weed Control and Training of Vines

Weed in between plants at 7 to 14 days after emergence. Weeds may be controlled by hand pulling or by shallow cultivation.

Train the vines to crawl on the plot and be evenly distributed over the area for the ease of irrigation, spraying of insecticide and hand pollination.

Pest and Disease Management

Cutworms and beetles can be controlled by spreading ash on the leaves while fruit fly can be controlled with the use of attractants. Disease is commonly infecting squash are mosaic virus, downy and powdery mildew, and bacterial wilt.

Harvesting

Harvest just before fruits are fully ripe or when the penduncle starts to dry up. It is best to harvest the fruits with a portion of the peduncle attached to prolong storage life.
For seed purposes, squash can be harvested 40 to 100 days after planting.

Peak Season

For best yield and profit, planting months must be from October to December, and May to July in hilly areas.

  • Seasonality of squash is based on the demand variability as shown in seasonal price index.
  • Peaks of production are in the months where prices are low and these are in the months of August to September.
  • Lean production months are observed from April to June where prices are high.
  • Since squash can be planted throughout the year, farmers based their planting schedule on the current market price of the commodity.
  • They will decide to plant if the price is high then, majority of the farmers will do the same thus, there will be an influx of supply during harvest time.

Source: PhilRice- Pinoy Rice Knowledge Bank and Department of Agriculture- Agriculture and Fisheries Market Information System, Date Accessed 27 March 2014

String Beans

Description

stringbeansSTRING BEANS

Sitaw in Tagalog or String Bean in English, but some people call it ''Snap Beans''. The yardlong bean is also known as the long-podded cowpea, asparagus bean, snake bean, or Chinese long bean. It is known as dau gok in Cantonese, thua fak yao in Thai and kacang panjang in Indonesian and Malay, sitaw Tagalog, bora in the West Indies and vali or eeril in Goa, India. Despite the name, the pods are actually only about half a yard long; the subspecies name sesquipedalis (one-and-a-half-foot-long) is a rather exact approximation of the pods' length. Yardlong beans are quick-growing and daily checking/harvesting is often a necessity. The crisp, tender pods are eaten both fresh and cooked. They are at their best when young and slender. They are sometimes cut into short sections for cooking uses. 
(Source: Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014)

For Cost and Returns, you may visit the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management

 

Land Preparation

  1. Plow the field 2-3 times, each time followed by harrowing.
  2. Make furrows 1m apart before planting.
  3. Apply 2-3 tons dried animal manure per hectare while preparing the land.

Crop Establishment

Planting

  1. Sow 2-3 seeds per hill 30-40cm apart (10-12 kg of seeds are needed per hectare).
  2. Plant in furrows during dry season and in ridge during wet season.
  3. Cover the seed with a thin layer of fine soil.
  4. For every 2 rows planted, leave a furrow vacant to provide space for spraying, trellising and harvesting.

Trellising

  1. Construct a side trellis as soon as the seed germinates.
  2. Layout 2.5m long and 2-2.5cm wide ipil-ipil, bamboo, or kakawate poles 3-4 m apart within the rows.
  3. Connect the poles horizontally by wire (#16 or #18) at the top, middle and bottom portions in every row.
  4. Tie the top wire to the stakes at the end of the rows to make the poles stable.
  5. Cut abaca twine or synthetic straw and tie them vertically from the top to bottom wires in every hill.

Vine Training
Train the vines to cling to the trellis and by spreading them evenly across the trellis until they reach the top.

Water and Nutrient Management

Fertilizing
Apply 5 tons well decomposed manure per hectare while preparing the land to mix it thouroughly with the soil.
Before planting, apply 20g or 1tbsp of 14-14-14 in the hole and cover it with soil to prevent direct contact with the seed. This is equivalent to 5 bags per hectare.
Optional: Sidedress 2-3 bags of Urea (46-0-0) 1 month after planting. Use Rhizobium inoculant to minimize the use of chemical fertilizer.

Irrigation
Irrigate the field after planting and once a week using furrow irrigation during dry season. Construct a canal for furrow irrigation. During wet season, irrigate only when necessary. Construct a drainage canal.

Harvest Management

Harvest the pods 7-10 days after the flowers have dried up. Harvest every 2-4 days to prolong flowering at fruiting of the plants

Pollination/Isolation

  1. Highly self pollinated although cross-pollination occurs.
  2. Observe an isolation distance, or planting one variety away from another variety, of 20m for certified seed and 30-50m for breeder seeds.
  3. Flower opens early in the morning and never closes. Anthers dehisce the night before flower opens.

Roguing

  1. Remove off-types diseased and virus infected plants.
  2. Conduct field inspection as follows:
    • At vegetative stage, check the shape and color of the leaves, and foliage cover. Also check the color and size of the stem, and internode length.
    • At flowering stage, observe for the date of flowering, height of first flower, and color of the flower.
    • At fruiting stage, observe for the color and length of pod, and the length of pod stalk.

Harvesting

  1. Harvest pods when physiologically mature or when pods have turned leathery brown.
  2. It may be necessary to harvest 3 times a week at peak harvest.

Seed Processing

  1. Dry pods under the sun 2-3 days or until brittle
  2. Put dried pods in net bag and beat manually with stick or by rubbing and splitting by hand in the absence of threshing machine.
  3. Remove trash by winnowing or by passing through an air-screen cleaner.
  4. Sort out small and wrinkled seeds and seeds with holes.
  5. Dry under the sun for 4-5 days or until moisture content is 11% or less.

Packaging/Storage

  1. For home use, pack seeds in a thick plastic or paper envelopes and place in large aluminum cans or large-mouth jars lined at the bottom with charcoal, lime or silica gel and seal well. Place in a cool, dry place.
  2. For large volume seeds, pack seeds in thick plastics or aluminum foil and seal well. Keep in a cool and dry place or storage area.
  3. The drier are the stored seeds and the cooler is the storage area, the longer is the life of the seed.

Pest Management

Weeding

  • Remove the weeds around the plants 2 weeks fropm seedling emergence until fruiting stage.
  • Perform spot weeding.
  • Cut-off the weeds in between the rows by using a scythe.
  • Mulch with rice straw to control weeds and conserve soil moisture.

Insect Pests

  • Use insecticide only when needed.
  • Do not use insecticide with red or yellow lines when the plants begin to bear pods.
  • For pod borer and aphids, spray with native hot pepper.
  • For pod borer and aphids, spray with native hot pepper juice mixed with water (100g of pepper per 16 liters of water)

Diseases

  • Pull-out and burn or bury plants with virus so that it will not spread to healthy plants.
  • Prune diseased leaves at the lower portion of the plants
  • Spray the plants with chemicals only when necessary

Nutrient Management

Fertilizing:

Apply 5 tons well decomposed manure per hectare while preparing the land to mix it thouroughly with the soil.
Before planting, apply 20g or 1tbsp of 14-14-14 in the hole and cover it with soil to prevent direct contact with the seed. This is equivalent to 5 bags per hectare.
Optional: Sidedress 2-3 bags of Urea (46-0-0) 1 month after planting. Use Rhizobium inoculant to minimize the use of chemical fertilizer.

Irrigation:

Irrigate the field after planting and once a week using furrow irrigation during dry season.
Construct a canal for furrow irrigation.
During wet season, irrigate only when necessary. Construct a drainage canal.

Weeding

Remove the weeds around the plants 2 weeks from seedling emergence until fruiting stage.
Perform spot weeding.
Cut-off the weeds in between the rows by using a scythe.
Mulch with rice straw to control weeds and conserve soil moisture.

Pest and Disease Management

Insect Pests
Use insecticide only when needed.
Do not use insecticide with red or yellow lines when the plants begin to bear pods.
For pod borer and aphids, spray with native hot pepper.
For pod borer and aphids, spray with native hot pepper juice mixed with water (100g of pepper per 16 liters of water)

Diseases
Pull-out and burn or bury plants with virus so that it will not spread to healthy plants.
Prune diseased leaves at the lower portion of the plants
Spray the plants with chemicals only when necessary

Source: Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014

Sugarcane

Description

sugarcaneSUGARCANE

Sugarcane (Saccharum) or popularly known as "Tubo" here in the Philippines, refers to any of tall perennial grasses of the family Gramineae ( grass family). Native to warm temperate to tropical regions of Asia, they have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar, and measure two to six meters tall. All sugar cane species interbreed, and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids.

Sugarcane is the major source of sugar around the world. It supplies 62% of the world sugar requirements while the remaining 38% are produced as local and specialized products from the sap of the maple tree, sorghum and from date and palm trees. (Source: Department of Agriculture Bicol Region, Date accessed 20 March 2014)

By-Products

  • Sugarcane fiber residue (bagas)

For Prices and Market Trends, you may visit the Agriculture and Fisheries Market Information System.

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management

 

Land Preparation

Plow clay soil two to three times during land preparation while sandy to loam soil can be plowed once to a depth of not more than 12 inches. Sub-soiling may be done as an option not more than 20 inches deep. Harrowing should be done after each plowing in a crisscross direction.

For conventional planting, the distance of seedlings should be 1m and 1.3 to 1.5m for mechanized planting with a depth of not more than 12 inches. This should be done before planting. (SRA-LAREC).

Planting and Replanting

Choose a variety that is suitable to the season and location where you are planting. A cutback, 6-7 months cane, is better to be used that cane tops. Choose a cutback with 2 to three joints. During the dry season, soak the canes in water for 24 hours before planting. Using chemicals during soaking is an option. Canes may also be soaked for 24 hours in running water. Incubation is done by putting the canes in sacks for 1 to 2 days under the shade. (SRA-LAREC)

Planting should be done not more than 8 inches deep. During wet season, plant the canes in a slanting position with the joints at the side. They should be covered in soil with two inches of the top showing. During dry season, canes should be placed on the soil parallel to the ground with the joints on the side and covered with 2 inches soil.

During dry season, plant 40,000 to 60,000 canes per hectare and 30,000 to 40,000 canes per hectare during wet season depending on the variety. (SRA-LAREC)
Replanting can only be done for soil with enough moisture. It is necessary if the non-growth is 15% or less. For a ratoon crop, use a 1.5 to 3 months old sprout. For a new crop, use a 1.5 months old sprout.

Cultivation and Weeding

First cultivation ("unang pagbabaak") is done 3 to 4 weeks after planting by plowing or raking. Second cultivation ("unang pagtatastas") is done 7 weeks after planting. Third cultivation ("unang pagsasampay") is done 2.5 months after planting. Fourth cultivation ("pangalawang pagtatastas") is done 3 months after planting. Fifth cultivation ("huling pagsasampay") is done after the fourth cultivation.

Weeding can be done manually, by using a chemical, or both.

Water and Nutrient Management

For clay soil, water every 21 days. For sandy to loam soil, water every 10 to 14 days by sprinkler irrigation. Excess water should be drained into manually created canals.

First Fertilization

For dry and wet season and moderate soil moisture, mix ½ Nitrogen (N) with ½ Potassium (K) and all Phosphorus (P) for sandy to loam soil. For clay soil, mix all NPK. The mixed fertilizer is applied 1.5 months after planting or after first weeding. Apply fertilizer near the roots. During dry season, the mixed fertilizer is applied together with the seedling during planting. For the ratoon crop, apply it in the ripped seedling. Cover the fertilizer with soil.

Second Fertilization

Apply the remaining ½ N and ½ K 3 to 5 months after planting. If using purely organic fertilizer, use 3 to 5 tons. If using enriched organic fertilizer, use 1 to 2 tons. Organic fertilizer is created from composted mud press. This can reduce the needed chemical fertilizer up to one half and can improve soil condition.

Application of Quicklime

Quicklime is added to reduce the acidity of the soil, the amount needed is according to the analysis of SRA. The type of quicklime is that having 95% neutralization value, 50% particle size, and a passing mesh of 100% passing mesh 20. Quicklime is added either before trashes are burned or after the first plow. Wait one month before application of fertilizer. Quicklime may be applied by manually spreading it or with use of a mechanical spreader.

A fertilizer rate of 80-60-60 is generally recommended for a clay loam soil in both seasons. The basal fertilizer is 30-30-30 or 215 kg of 14-14-14 per hectare. This is 21-22g/linear meter of row in the 100 cm spacing and 16g/m in the 75 cm spacing. The fertilizer is drilled at the bottom of the furrow before planting.

Side Dressing (21 days after planting)

If ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) is used: The rate is 23-24g/m of row in the 100 cm spacing while 18g/m is applied in the 75 cm spacing.
If urea is used: 11-12g/m is side dressed in the 100 cm row spacing and 8-9g/m in the 75 cm spacing.
If the soil is dry, overhead irrigation should follow. Hilling up using a double-moldboard plow should is needed to cover the fertilizer and wet soil. The dry soil cover will serve as "soil mulch".

Pest and Disease Management

Insect Pests

  1. Aphids
  2. Armyworms
  3. Grasshopper
  4. Green Caterpillar
  5. Mites
  6. Nematodes
  7. Pink Mealy Bug
  8. Rats
  9. Scale Insect
  10. Stemborer
  11. Topborer
  12. White Grubs
  13. Wireworms
  14. Wooly Aphids

Diseases

  1. Branded
  2. Downy Mildew
  3. Leaf Scorch
  4. Mosaic
  5. Pineapple Disease
  6. Pokkah Boeng
  7. Ratoon Stunting Disease
  8. Rust
  9. Sugarcane Smut
  10. Yellow Spot

Harvesting

Mature sugarcane (4 months old) may be harvested once the leaves and stalks have a uniform yellow color. Cut the full stalks. Do not cut the top of the stalk if the full stalks will not be cut within 3 days.

After harvesting, clear the area of trashes before the harvested stalks are brought to the central. The trashes lest should not be more than 1%. Ratooning is done depending on harvest. Trashes are burned or used in trash mulching. Stalks are cut down to the roots to have a better growth for the next crops. If this is not down, perform stubble shaving before trash mulching.

Source: Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 26 March 2014

Sweet Potato

Description

sweetpotatoSWEET POTATO

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam), popularly known as "kamote" is one of the staple food of the Filipinos. It is rich in food energy, vitamins and minerals essential for the human diet. It is usually eaten boiled or baked, and may be candied with syrup or processed into puree. It is a source of starch, glucose, syrup and alcohol and now used as a major ingredient for feeds. Its tops and leaves are utilized as a pot-herb and the vines as fodder for livestock.

Among the roots, bulbs, and tubers, sweet potato has the highest consumption volume. The national per capita consumption is 10.9 kilos. In the Bicol Region, sweet potato is planted everywhere because it requires less cultural management. (Source: Department of Agriculture Bicol Region, Date accessed 20 March 2014)

For Cost and Returns, you may visit the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics.

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

Cultural Management

 

Soil and Climatic Requirements

Sweet potato can be grown twice a year anywhere in the country and in a wide range of soil types, from heavy to sandy. It thrives best in areas with sandy loam soil, uniform rainfall and good drainage. Dry season crop usually produces better quality roots because climate favors root development.
The crop can be planted anytime of the year so long as the soil is sufficiently moist. It is usually planted at the onset of the rainy season or immediately after when the soil is still moist.

Land Preparation

The area is plowed at least twice and thoroughly harrowed, when carabao drawn implements is used. Make furrows or ridges at 0.80 cm. between rows.

Propagation

There are two types of propagation:

  1. Sprouts from tubers.
  2. Terminal cuttings.
  • Terminal cuttings are favored because they are available throughout the year
  • Easier to gather and free from soil borne diseases.
  • It gives better growth and yield compared to middle and basal.
    • Gather tip cuttings 30 to 35 cms. long, a day or two days before planting about 40,000 tips are needed to plant 1.0 ha.
    • Remove older leaves to reduce transpiration and to keep cuttings longer if necessary.
    • Store the cuttings under a cool, moist and shady place for not more than 7 days.

Planting

Procedure to be followed:

  1. Before planting, cuttings should be dipped in a solution of insecticides and fungicides
  2. Plant one cutting per hill at a distance of 0.35 m between hills and 0.80 m between rows.
  3. Bury about 1/3 of the basal part of the cuttings into the soil when there is enough soil moisture and 2/3 when the soil is a bit dry. On wet soil, vertical planting is recommended and horizontal or slanting when the soil moisture is inadequate, to prevent the cuttings from drying up.
  4. Re-plant 1 to 2 weeks after planting if necessary.

Fertilizer Application

Sweet potato needs less phosphorous than potassium and nitrogen. Good fertilization rate is 60 kilograms of nitrogen, 30 kilograms of phosphorous and 120 kilograms of potassium (60-30-120)

Apply one-half of the fertilizer rate before planting, either under ridge or furrows and the other half top dressed two or four weeks after planting. This split fertilizer application is better than the single application technique. The use of manure or compost is also beneficial especially in areas with poor sandy clay soils.

Harvesting

Sweet potato is usually harvested four months after planting. However, this varies depending on the variety and climatic incidence. Some varieties mature as early as 90 days and some mature 100-120 days for dry season and 150 for wet season (DAP).

In some cases, readiness of the crop for harvesting is indicated by yellowing of the leaves. Maturity can also be determined by cutting few roots and exposing them to the air for an hour. If the cut surface dries up, the roots are mature but if the sap continue to flow and remain sticky, the roots are still immature
If harvesting is done too early yields are low but if the crop is left in the ground too long, the roots becomes fibrous, unplantable and are prone to be attacked by sweet potato weevil and various rots

In harvesting, the following steps are involved:

  1. Cutting and rolling of vines to one side of the field
  2. Passed 3 to 4 times along the rows designed for sweet potato harvester
  3. Follow the harvested one at a time and pick-up harvested roots
  4. Remove soil particles from roots
  5. Sorting roots into large, medium, small and etc
  6. Discard roots damaged by sweet potato weevil
  7. Place the roots in container for market or home use.

Disease Management

Sweet potato is affected by different diseases in the field, affecting the storage life of the roots. These diseases can cause economic losses in yield depending upon the severity of infection.

Packaging

The term "packaging" refers to the operation of producing packages that used to contain protect; identify and sell a product. It involves not only the packaging of the crop from the farm to the market or storage and to the end-user. In this case, different types of containers are used needed from one to another i.e., farm to storage within storage and in the market.
One way of obtaining good quality products is by employing packaging methods and using suitable containers during storage. A good pack lessens scratches, bruises and injuries during transport from the field to any point, hence, maintains the quality and good appearance of the roots. If the roots are to be stored, proper packaging lengthens the storage life of sweet potato roots. It also protects against moisture loss (weight loss) and thus prevent dehydration.

Benefits that could be derived from packaging:

  1. More efficient utilization of storage place. More roots can be accommodated into a given area, if the roots are placed in containers, since they could easily be piled or top of each other.
  2. Roots properly placed in containers, they can be easily arranged in such a way that proper ventilation of the roots is being facilitated.
  3. Keep the floor clean.

Packaging materials to be used:
Although there are no packaging containers specific for sweet potato, some of those available have sufficient stocking strength and are considered ideal because they protect the roots from being injured or compressed which prevent the roots from bruising, crushing.

Post-Harvest Handling and Storage of Sweet Potato

Postharvest handling of sweet potato

Thrust in food production must be matched with improvement in the postharvest handling of the produce. Proper handling at all stages of post production from harvest time until the products reach the ultimate consumer is therefore essential.

One postharvest problem is carelessness in handling operations. Throwing dug up sweet potato roots some distance away to a container or into a pile is a common practice during harvesting. It is not realty to handle the roots as eggs, but it should be handled carefully because the impact or compression that each variety of sweet potato can tolerate without significant loss in quality and storability. It is best however then that sweet potato roots should be handled as carefully as possible.

Sorting and Grading

Sweet potato roots should be placed in cool, shaded and well-ventilated areas for sorting and grading. Mixing roots of different qualities (large, medium, undersize, etc.) will lower the average quality and value of sweet potato. In this regard, classify the roots into large, medium, small undersize, damaged, etc.

Grading helps buyers select most suitable for the purpose they like. It aids in marketing of sweet potato by establishing common language for wholesale trading and means of establishing high prices. Grading permits a buyer to purchase more precisely what he wants and makes the marketing system more efficient. When sweet potato is ungraded, buyers tend to extensively haggle buying to get reasonable price. Usually, buyers are prone to offer low prices for the ungraded causing the farmers to receive lower profit or possibly loss.

Source: Department of Agriculture Bicol Region, Date accessed 20 March 2014

Swine/Hog Raising

Description

swine1SWINE or HOG RAISING

The terms hog, swine, and pig are often used interchangeably for these animals. Hog is a domesticated mammal, of the swine family. They are classified in the genus Sus.

Swine Production is an important industry and is considered as one of the most popular and profitable business enterprise in the field of animal production. Some factors that may attribute to the ever growing popularity and interest in swine raising; pigs are prolific, the demand for pork is high hence it is considered as one of the most favorite meat of most Filipinos, it is also adopted to diversified farming, pork unlike other meats can be cured as ham.

Hog Raising is a very popular enterprise in the Philippines such that there is a proliferation of backyard producers, which dominates the swine industry and a healthy viable commercial sector. Despite the crises facing the swine industry, still many people are venturing in this enterprise. This manual hopes to bring appropriate technology to the interested farmers and would-be swine producers in order that they may realize profitable production and improve their quality of life.
(Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 27 March 2014)

For Prices and Market Trends, you may visit the Agriculture and Fisheries Market Information System.

For further assistance in your area, you may check the Technical and Financial Assistance Directory.

 

Cultural Management

Breeds

A breed is a group of animals that has specific traits or characteristics in common. Mating within the breed produces progeny that maintains the same set of characteristics.

Listed below are the common breeds of pigs as shown in Table

swine2


 

 

 

 

 

(Source: Department of Agriculture-AFMIS, Date accessed 27 March 2014)

Management Practices

Most gilts of the improved breeds reach the age of puberty at about six to eight months of age but they should not be bred until they are eight months of age or are weighing about 90 to 100 kg.
Swine Housing

Generally, boars should be four to six months old at the time of selection. Whatever systems of operation, hog houses must be constructed properly to ensure maximum performance of the pigs. A good hog house may not improve the health conditions of the animals but a poor one will certainly increase disease problem easily.

For a small or backyard operations, cheap and locally available materials may be used such as bamboo and nipa.
Hog houses should be constructed on a slightly sloping and well-drained area so that it will not become too muddy and convenient to work in.

Permanent hog houses should have concrete floors for easy cleaning and to minimize the occurrence of parasites and diseases. Concrete floors must not be too rough to cause foot and leg problems nor too smooth to be slippery when wet.


Selection Criteria

When selecting breeder sows on the basis of physical appearance, consider the following:

  • The gilt should have well developed udder with a minimum of six pairs of properly spaced function teats. A sow with poor udder development is likely to have a poor milking capacity;
  • Choose those which do not have inverted teats such teats are inherited and do not secrete milk;
  • A long body is more desirably in sows because it provides more space for udder development;
  • The body should have a uniform width from front to rear;
  • Good development of the ham. Loin and shoulder is required of a breeding animal;
  • Must have a sound and well placed feet and legs. Animals with medium short feet and short upright pasterns are preferable;
  • Make it a point to select the biggest animals within a litter;
  • Female breeders should come from a litter of eight or more good-sized piglets with high survivability;
  • Do not keep the gilts that come from sows in which agalactia (failure to secrete milk) have been observed;
  • Select vigorous and hardy pigs from a healthy litter in a herd raised under good swine sanitation. Do not keep gilts or boars from litters that have physical abnormalities. This may be inherited

Most of the factors discussed in connection with a selection of gilt or sow also apply in the selection of a boar. However the following pointers should also be considered:

  • Masculinity, both in appearance and action, should predominate in the make-up of any boar;
  • The primary sex organs should be clearly visible and be well-developed. Select only those boars whose testicles are of equal size;
  • Select however, the best is to select a boar which has been proven and tested for boars with traits that can overcome the defects of the herd. Minor defects in the boar may be ignored provided that they are not presenting among the sows.

Feeds and Feeding Practices

  • If the milk supply of the sow is inadequate to feed her piglets, supplement her with a good creep ration. Use a milk replacer. Choose many available brands.
  • Begin feeding a commercial good pre-starter ration when the pigs are about one week of age.
  • The ration of the pigs should be changed at different stages of growth but the shift from one ration to another should be done gradually in order not to upset the normal feeding behavior of the pigs. Always allow a transition period of at least one week before making changes.

Care and Health Practices

1. Hog Cholera or Swine Fever
Pigs gets contaminated through direct contact or by eating uncooked slops or kitchen scraps containing the virus

Signs:

  • Fever, loss of appetite
  • Increased thirst, chills and sometimes vomiting
  • Constipation, later followed by diarrhea
  • Inflammation of the eye (conjunctivitis) thick discharges causing eyelids to stick together
  • Reddish, purple discoloration of skin at ears, abdomen, inner thighs or tai
  • Death ensues 4-7 days after onset of signs
  • Prolonged duration of illness (chronic form) terminates in pneumonia or hemorrhagic enteritis, or both

Prevention and Control:

  • Vaccinate all pigs against the disease using a reliable vaccine, weaning at one week before or after weaning; sows and boars, every six months
  • Dispose all pigs known to have the disease. Disinfect contaminated pens and premises properly
  • Avoid giving uncooked slops or kitchen scraps to pigs which are common sources of infection

2. Swine Dysentery

Signs:

  • Loss of appetite
  • Fever
  • Rough coat and weakness
  • Watery feces flecked with mucus or blood

Prevention and Treatment:

  • Antibiotics in feed for two weeks when disease is prevalent
  • Quarantine new arrivals for a week and feed high level antibiotics

3. Pneumonia-disease Complex

Signs:

  • Coughing
  • Eye and nasal discharge
  • Difficult breathing (abdominal nature)
  • Chilling
  • Muscular cramps
  • Sneezing

Pneumonia symptoms are associated with the following conditions:

4. Swine Plague – usually a complication of swine flu

5. Enzootic Pneumonia – impaired growth and feed conversion rates for long time with frequent attacks of persistent dry cough

6. Swine Flu – exposure to stress, particularly cold and inclement weather; poor drafty environment also favors chilling of susceptible pigs

7. Athorpic Rhinitis – lateral distortion of nose, excessive sneezing of even week-old piglets

Prevention

  • Improve management and emphasize dry, clean, draft-free and well-ventilated housing
  • Avoid overcrowding, as most respiratory disease are transmitted by inhalation of infected air particles
  • Provide plenty of clean, fresh water, nutritious feed and vitamin-antibiotic feed supplement

Treatment
There is no specific treatment for swine flu, swine plague and enzootic pneumonia. However, antibiotics like tetracyclines and sulfas may be of benefit. Respiratory stimulants and antiseptics as well as good nursing care speed up recovery. For Athropic Rhinitis, use Sulfamethazine in feedsand Sulfathiazole in water – 1/3 to ½ gram per gallon.

Marketing

Marketing is the last job done on growing finishing pigs. Hogs are marketed when they reach at least 80 kg.

Marketable hogs may be sold to middleman who usually act as buying or selling agents, direct to meat processors without the intervention of a middleman, or in auction markets where the animals are sold to the buyers who offers the highest acceptable price per kilo live-weight or per head.

When a large number of hogs are to be marketed the producer must observe proper shipment and transport handling to minimize losses due to shrinkage, bruises, injuries and possible deaths. Here are some tips:

  • When transporting hogs, separate the large animals from small pigs by partition
  • Provide loading facilities for easier and proper loading of pigs
  • If necessary provide beddings of sand or saw dust. When the weather is hot wet down the beddings before loading to keep the pigs cool and comfortable
  • Do not overload nor underload the truck
  • Do not excite or over heat hogs. Give the hogs enough rest and leave them undisturbed until they are butchered
  • Do nor overfeed hogs before transport to avoid suffocation or vomiting.

Technology Options:

Artificial Insemination in Pigs

A very cheap and practical way to carry out genetic improvement is through the use of artificial insemination (AI). The strength of AI is generally dependent on the genetic superiority of the boar and the possibility of spreading its qualities to more females to produce offsprings of better genetic quality.

The swine AI technology includes boar selection and evaluation; semen collection, evaluation, processing and storage; estrus detection; procedure of insemination; and breeding performance evaluation.

By using AI, one ejaculate can be used to breed 10 sows on the average compared to only one when natural mating is practiced. Other advantages of AI in pigs are the following:

The gilt should have well developed udder with a minimum of six pairs of properly spaced function teats. A sow with poor udder development is likely to have a poor milking capacity;

  • minimizes if not totally control the spread of reproductive diseases;
  • allows the use of physically handicapped or crippled, yet genetically superior boars that cannot normally perform natural mating;
  • avoids possible injuries on either the boar or the sow/gilt that may happen during mating;
  • infertile boars are immediately detected;
  • allows breeding of females from distant places with less transport costs and inconvenience, and without causing travel-related stress on the boar;
  • allows small-scale raisers to keep a few sows without maintaining a boar;
  • eliminates the problem of mating boars and sows of different sizes;
  • increases the number of sows bred by a boar and the possibility of extending the boars' productive life; and
  • reduces breeding cost.

Pork Research and Technology

DA launches "Pork in a Box"

To increase accessibility and reduce price of hog products in the market the Agriculture Department launches recently the "Pork in a Box" program.

A pork post production system, this "Pork in a Box" project hopes to ensure safety, economy, efficiency and environmental soundness in all aspects of the pork supply chain.
According to Agriculture Secretary Arthur C. Yap,under this program, instead of transporting live hogs, these will be processed in the point of origin in the Visayas and Mindanao and only carcass and cut products will be transported directly to markets in Metro Manila.

Aside from minimizing transport costs, the program provides access to ready market, and will reduce layers of middlemen that result in add-on-costs in the marketing of hog products.

Aside from cutting post production losses and transport costs, Yap said the program can reduce risk of disease transmission, improve meat quality and safety of pork and pork products

(Source: Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 27 March 2014)

Breeding Farms

JHON & JHON FARMS INC.

Farm: Sitio Halang, Bo. Macamot, Binangonan, Rizal
(02) 652 6482/911 4757
http://www.jhonandjhonfarms.com


LUZ FARM INC.

Farm: Brgy. Pinagsibaan, Rosario, Batangas
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
900 0292/ 0917 577 1674


JVC FARM INC.

Farm: Sitio Hilirang Buli, Lagalag, Tiaong, Quezon
(049) 585 4139/0922 819 6495


GL GEDDY’S PIGGERY FARM

Farm: Tumbaga 1 , Sariaya, Quezon
(049) 525 7815/ (049) 525 9155


INTEGRATED MOBILIZERS INDUSTRIES FARMS (IMI) INC.

Farm: 0585 Brgy. Gayagaya, San Jose del Monte City, Bulacan
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(044) 815 8888/ (0917) 842 5972/0922 868 2446
http://www.imifarms.com


PIC PHILIPPINES, INC.

Farm: Brgy. Concepcion, Lopez, Quezon
(02) 914 2594 to 96/(02) 637 6899


FOREMOST FARMS INC.

Farm: Bo. Pinugay, Baras, Rizal
645 2082/ 645 2081/645 7138


EDWARD AGRI FARM

Farm: 0508 Edsan St. Paralaya, Manibaug, Porac, Pampanga
(045) 323 6147/0926 757 0917


CREEKVIEW STOCK BREEDING FARM

Farm: Sitio Rose, Brgy. San Jose, Sta. Cruz Laguna
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(049) 572 0177/(049) 808 3339


HOLIDAY HILLS STOCK AND BREEDING FARM

Farm: Narra rd., Brgy. San Antonio, San Pedro, Laguna
671 4748/ 771 0295/671 4750


VERGEL DE DIOS PIG FARM, PHILIPPINES

Farm: Km. 39 Gulod, Pulong Buhangin, Sta. Maria, Bulacan
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
292 1183/ 292 0150/ 292 1183/ 292 1171


SWINE NUCLEUS/ MULTIPLIER FARM (PILMICO)

Farm: Brgy. Sto Rosario, Capas, Tarlac
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(045) 925 0506


CAVITE PIG CITY, INC.

Farm: Brgy. San Francisco, Gen. Trias, Cavite
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
242 3462 to 64


JARO DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION

Farm: Brgy. Aguado, Trece Martirez City, Cavite
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(046) 471 0170/ 471 4164/ 417 1881/ (046) 471 0252


QJJ FARM INC.

Farm: Brgy. Virgen delos Remedios, Bamban, Tarlac
0917 866 2288


QUICKGROW GENETICS PHIL. INC (FORMERLY A.O SANTOS FARM)

Farm: Sitio Sili, Brgy. Ungib, San Quintin, Pangasinan
(02) 521 1230/ (02) 528 1038 loc. 115/ 0917 554 7982/ 0908 879 3088


VICTORIA FOODS COMPANY (VICTORIA FARM)

Farm: Sto. Apiad, Brgy. Bucal, Silang, Cavite
0922 837 4296/ 0905 263 9447/646 3595


INTERNATIONAL FARM CORPORATION (INFARMCO)

Farm: San Isidro, Cabuyao, Laguna
715 2621


HYPIG GENETICS, INC.

Farm: Purok 3, Sitio Caliyaan, Brgy. Bantuanon, Lantapan, Bukidnon
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
366 0616/364 8018


MC QUARRY

Farm: Barangay Kaliwanagan, San Jose, Nueva Ecija
0917 362 9932


INTERNATIONAL SWINE GENETICS, INC.

Farm: Brgy. Sta. Lourdes, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(048) 723 0759/ 0929 741 6376/(02) 722 7462


EUROPHIL SWINE GENETICS, INC.

Farm: Sto. Nino, Ibaan, Batangas
(043) 422 0027


DEPO BREEDING CENTER

Farm: Purok 6, Brgy Campos, Talavera, Nueva Ecija
(044) 411 0135 / 0917 566 8435


3J SIRELINES NUCLEUS FARM

Farm: Brgy. San Pedro, Tiaong, Quezon
(049) 562 0314/(02) 520 6051/ 0917 592 9421


VENVI AGRO INDUSTRIAL VENTURES CORP.

Farm: Brgy. Bugnay, San Nicolas, Ilocos Norte
(02) 914 2594 to 96/(02) 637 6899


GENTICO PROGRESO/ CENTRAL FARMS, INC. (PIC PHILIPPINES, INC.)

Farm: Hacienda Ma. Antonia, Brgy. Bulad, Isabela, Negros Occidental
(02) 914 2594 to 96/(02) 637 6899 (Mla. Office)


JAMARLI, INC. (JALTAS HOGS)

Farm: Bago City, Negros Occidental
(034) 434 1626/ 433 1599/(034) 433 1497


V4 FARMS

Farm: Brgy. Saguwa Banua, Valiadolid, Negros Occidental
(034) 434 8871 / (034) 461 1179/(034) 435 1525


WELLISA FARM (KANE’S BREEDING FARM)

Farm: Brgy. Mojon,Bantayan Island, Cebu
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0917 308 8119


CECILIA STOCK FARMS, INC.

Farm: Prk. 1, Cacao, Panabo City, Davao del Norte
(02) 637 6899


PROGRESSIVE FARMS, INC.

Farm: Bo. Palian, Tupi, South Cotabato
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
(083) 228 5131/ (083) 816 5554/ 09399046867


DAVAO SUSANA FARM (SURICO, INC.)

Farm: Purok 4, Brgy. Sirawan, Toril, Davao City
297 3452


CORAL AGRI VENTURE FARM, INC.

Office: 90 E. Rodriguez Jr. Ave., Ugong Norte, Murphy Libis, Quezon City
Farm: Bo.Road, Sitio Pantay Buhangin, Dalig Morong, Teresa, Rizal 1880

Ms. Annie Laylay 0917-773-1792
Ms. Teresita Pino 0917-546-2290
Ms. Grace Mata 0917 -499-7566 / 404-76-56
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
0917 577 7973 / 634 8387 loc 1636 / Fax no. 636 1837


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