SWINE or HOG RAISING
The terms hog, swine, and pig are often used interchangeably for these animals. Hog is a domesticated mammal, of the swine family. They are classified in the genus Sus.
Swine Production is an important industry and is considered as one of the most popular and profitable business enterprise in the field of animal production. Some factors that may attribute to the ever growing popularity and interest in swine raising; pigs are prolific, the demand for pork is high hence it is considered as one of the most favorite meat of most Filipinos, it is also adopted to diversified farming, pork unlike other meats can be cured as ham.
Hog Raising is a very popular enterprise in the Philippines such that there is a proliferation of backyard producers, which dominates the swine industry and a healthy viable commercial sector. Despite the crises facing the swine industry, still many people are venturing in this enterprise. This manual hopes to bring appropriate technology to the interested farmers and would-be swine producers in order that they may realize profitable production and improve their quality of life.
(Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 27 March 2014)
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A breed is a group of animals that has specific traits or characteristics in common. Mating within the breed produces progeny that maintains the same set of characteristics.
Listed below are the common breeds of pigs as shown in Table
(Source: Department of Agriculture-AFMIS, Date accessed 27 March 2014)
Most gilts of the improved breeds reach the age of puberty at about six to eight months of age but they should not be bred until they are eight months of age or are weighing about 90 to 100 kg.
Generally, boars should be four to six months old at the time of selection. Whatever systems of operation, hog houses must be constructed properly to ensure maximum performance of the pigs. A good hog house may not improve the health conditions of the animals but a poor one will certainly increase disease problem easily.
For a small or backyard operations, cheap and locally available materials may be used such as bamboo and nipa.
Hog houses should be constructed on a slightly sloping and well-drained area so that it will not become too muddy and convenient to work in.
Permanent hog houses should have concrete floors for easy cleaning and to minimize the occurrence of parasites and diseases. Concrete floors must not be too rough to cause foot and leg problems nor too smooth to be slippery when wet.
Selection CriteriaWhen selecting breeder sows on the basis of physical appearance, consider the following:
- The gilt should have well developed udder with a minimum of six pairs of properly spaced function teats. A sow with poor udder development is likely to have a poor milking capacity;
- Choose those which do not have inverted teats such teats are inherited and do not secrete milk;
- A long body is more desirably in sows because it provides more space for udder development;
- The body should have a uniform width from front to rear;
- Good development of the ham. Loin and shoulder is required of a breeding animal;
- Must have a sound and well placed feet and legs. Animals with medium short feet and short upright pasterns are preferable;
- Make it a point to select the biggest animals within a litter;
- Female breeders should come from a litter of eight or more good-sized piglets with high survivability;
- Do not keep the gilts that come from sows in which agalactia (failure to secrete milk) have been observed;
- Select vigorous and hardy pigs from a healthy litter in a herd raised under good swine sanitation. Do not keep gilts or boars from litters that have physical abnormalities. This may be inherited
Most of the factors discussed in connection with a selection of gilt or sow also apply in the selection of a boar. However the following pointers should also be considered:
- Masculinity, both in appearance and action, should predominate in the make-up of any boar;
- The primary sex organs should be clearly visible and be well-developed. Select only those boars whose testicles are of equal size;
- Select however, the best is to select a boar which has been proven and tested for boars with traits that can overcome the defects of the herd. Minor defects in the boar may be ignored provided that they are not presenting among the sows.
Feeds and Feeding Practices
- If the milk supply of the sow is inadequate to feed her piglets, supplement her with a good creep ration. Use a milk replacer. Choose many available brands.
- Begin feeding a commercial good pre-starter ration when the pigs are about one week of age.
- The ration of the pigs should be changed at different stages of growth but the shift from one ration to another should be done gradually in order not to upset the normal feeding behavior of the pigs. Always allow a transition period of at least one week before making changes.
Care and Health Practices
1. Hog Cholera or Swine Fever
Pigs gets contaminated through direct contact or by eating uncooked slops or kitchen scraps containing the virus
- Fever, loss of appetite
- Increased thirst, chills and sometimes vomiting
- Constipation, later followed by diarrhea
- Inflammation of the eye (conjunctivitis) thick discharges causing eyelids to stick together
- Reddish, purple discoloration of skin at ears, abdomen, inner thighs or tai
- Death ensues 4-7 days after onset of signs
- Prolonged duration of illness (chronic form) terminates in pneumonia or hemorrhagic enteritis, or both
Prevention and Control:
- Vaccinate all pigs against the disease using a reliable vaccine, weaning at one week before or after weaning; sows and boars, every six months
- Dispose all pigs known to have the disease. Disinfect contaminated pens and premises properly
- Avoid giving uncooked slops or kitchen scraps to pigs which are common sources of infection
2. Swine Dysentery
- Loss of appetite
- Rough coat and weakness
- Watery feces flecked with mucus or blood
Prevention and Treatment:
- Antibiotics in feed for two weeks when disease is prevalent
- Quarantine new arrivals for a week and feed high level antibiotics
3. Pneumonia-disease Complex
- Eye and nasal discharge
- Difficult breathing (abdominal nature)
- Muscular cramps
Pneumonia symptoms are associated with the following conditions:
4. Swine Plague – usually a complication of swine flu
5. Enzootic Pneumonia – impaired growth and feed conversion rates for long time with frequent attacks of persistent dry cough
6. Swine Flu – exposure to stress, particularly cold and inclement weather; poor drafty environment also favors chilling of susceptible pigs
7. Athorpic Rhinitis – lateral distortion of nose, excessive sneezing of even week-old piglets
- Improve management and emphasize dry, clean, draft-free and well-ventilated housing
- Avoid overcrowding, as most respiratory disease are transmitted by inhalation of infected air particles
- Provide plenty of clean, fresh water, nutritious feed and vitamin-antibiotic feed supplement
There is no specific treatment for swine flu, swine plague and enzootic pneumonia. However, antibiotics like tetracyclines and sulfas may be of benefit. Respiratory stimulants and antiseptics as well as good nursing care speed up recovery. For Athropic Rhinitis, use Sulfamethazine in feedsand Sulfathiazole in water – 1/3 to ½ gram per gallon.
Marketing is the last job done on growing finishing pigs. Hogs are marketed when they reach at least 80 kg.
Marketable hogs may be sold to middleman who usually act as buying or selling agents, direct to meat processors without the intervention of a middleman, or in auction markets where the animals are sold to the buyers who offers the highest acceptable price per kilo live-weight or per head.
When a large number of hogs are to be marketed the producer must observe proper shipment and transport handling to minimize losses due to shrinkage, bruises, injuries and possible deaths. Here are some tips:
- When transporting hogs, separate the large animals from small pigs by partition
- Provide loading facilities for easier and proper loading of pigs
- If necessary provide beddings of sand or saw dust. When the weather is hot wet down the beddings before loading to keep the pigs cool and comfortable
- Do not overload nor underload the truck
- Do not excite or over heat hogs. Give the hogs enough rest and leave them undisturbed until they are butchered
- Do nor overfeed hogs before transport to avoid suffocation or vomiting.
Artificial Insemination in Pigs
A very cheap and practical way to carry out genetic improvement is through the use of artificial insemination (AI). The strength of AI is generally dependent on the genetic superiority of the boar and the possibility of spreading its qualities to more females to produce offsprings of better genetic quality.
The swine AI technology includes boar selection and evaluation; semen collection, evaluation, processing and storage; estrus detection; procedure of insemination; and breeding performance evaluation.
By using AI, one ejaculate can be used to breed 10 sows on the average compared to only one when natural mating is practiced. Other advantages of AI in pigs are the following:
The gilt should have well developed udder with a minimum of six pairs of properly spaced function teats. A sow with poor udder development is likely to have a poor milking capacity;
- minimizes if not totally control the spread of reproductive diseases;
- allows the use of physically handicapped or crippled, yet genetically superior boars that cannot normally perform natural mating;
- avoids possible injuries on either the boar or the sow/gilt that may happen during mating;
- infertile boars are immediately detected;
- allows breeding of females from distant places with less transport costs and inconvenience, and without causing travel-related stress on the boar;
- allows small-scale raisers to keep a few sows without maintaining a boar;
- eliminates the problem of mating boars and sows of different sizes;
- increases the number of sows bred by a boar and the possibility of extending the boars' productive life; and
- reduces breeding cost.
Pork Research and Technology
DA launches "Pork in a Box"
To increase accessibility and reduce price of hog products in the market the Agriculture Department launches recently the "Pork in a Box" program.
A pork post production system, this "Pork in a Box" project hopes to ensure safety, economy, efficiency and environmental soundness in all aspects of the pork supply chain.
According to Agriculture Secretary Arthur C. Yap,under this program, instead of transporting live hogs, these will be processed in the point of origin in the Visayas and Mindanao and only carcass and cut products will be transported directly to markets in Metro Manila.
Aside from minimizing transport costs, the program provides access to ready market, and will reduce layers of middlemen that result in add-on-costs in the marketing of hog products.
Aside from cutting post production losses and transport costs, Yap said the program can reduce risk of disease transmission, improve meat quality and safety of pork and pork products
(Source: Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 27 March 2014)
JHON & JHON FARMS INC.
Farm: Sitio Halang, Bo. Macamot, Binangonan, Rizal
(02) 652 6482/911 4757
LUZ FARM INC.
Farm: Brgy. Pinagsibaan, Rosario, Batangas
900 0292/ 0917 577 1674
JVC FARM INC.
Farm: Sitio Hilirang Buli, Lagalag, Tiaong, Quezon
(049) 585 4139/0922 819 6495
GL GEDDY’S PIGGERY FARM
Farm: Tumbaga 1 , Sariaya, Quezon
(049) 525 7815/ (049) 525 9155
INTEGRATED MOBILIZERS INDUSTRIES FARMS (IMI) INC.
Farm: 0585 Brgy. Gayagaya, San Jose del Monte City, Bulacan
(044) 815 8888/ (0917) 842 5972/0922 868 2446
PIC PHILIPPINES, INC.
Farm: Brgy. Concepcion, Lopez, Quezon
(02) 914 2594 to 96/(02) 637 6899
FOREMOST FARMS INC.
Farm: Bo. Pinugay, Baras, Rizal
645 2082/ 645 2081/645 7138
EDWARD AGRI FARM
Farm: 0508 Edsan St. Paralaya, Manibaug, Porac, Pampanga
(045) 323 6147/0926 757 0917
CREEKVIEW STOCK BREEDING FARM
Farm: Sitio Rose, Brgy. San Jose, Sta. Cruz Laguna
(049) 572 0177/(049) 808 3339
HOLIDAY HILLS STOCK AND BREEDING FARM
Farm: Narra rd., Brgy. San Antonio, San Pedro, Laguna
671 4748/ 771 0295/671 4750
VERGEL DE DIOS PIG FARM, PHILIPPINES
Farm: Km. 39 Gulod, Pulong Buhangin, Sta. Maria, Bulacan
292 1183/ 292 0150/ 292 1183/ 292 1171
SWINE NUCLEUS/ MULTIPLIER FARM (PILMICO)
Farm: Brgy. Sto Rosario, Capas, Tarlac
(045) 925 0506
CAVITE PIG CITY, INC.
Farm: Brgy. San Francisco, Gen. Trias, Cavite
242 3462 to 64
JARO DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION
Farm: Brgy. Aguado, Trece Martirez City, Cavite
(046) 471 0170/ 471 4164/ 417 1881/ (046) 471 0252
QJJ FARM INC.
Farm: Brgy. Virgen delos Remedios, Bamban, Tarlac
0917 866 2288
QUICKGROW GENETICS PHIL. INC (FORMERLY A.O SANTOS FARM)
Farm: Sitio Sili, Brgy. Ungib, San Quintin, Pangasinan
(02) 521 1230/ (02) 528 1038 loc. 115/ 0917 554 7982/ 0908 879 3088
VICTORIA FOODS COMPANY (VICTORIA FARM)
Farm: Sto. Apiad, Brgy. Bucal, Silang, Cavite
0922 837 4296/ 0905 263 9447/646 3595
INTERNATIONAL FARM CORPORATION (INFARMCO)
Farm: San Isidro, Cabuyao, Laguna
HYPIG GENETICS, INC.
Farm: Purok 3, Sitio Caliyaan, Brgy. Bantuanon, Lantapan, Bukidnon
366 0616/364 8018
Farm: Barangay Kaliwanagan, San Jose, Nueva Ecija
0917 362 9932
INTERNATIONAL SWINE GENETICS, INC.
Farm: Brgy. Sta. Lourdes, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan
(048) 723 0759/ 0929 741 6376/(02) 722 7462
EUROPHIL SWINE GENETICS, INC.
Farm: Sto. Nino, Ibaan, Batangas
(043) 422 0027
DEPO BREEDING CENTER
Farm: Purok 6, Brgy Campos, Talavera, Nueva Ecija
(044) 411 0135 / 0917 566 8435
3J SIRELINES NUCLEUS FARM
Farm: Brgy. San Pedro, Tiaong, Quezon
(049) 562 0314/(02) 520 6051/ 0917 592 9421
VENVI AGRO INDUSTRIAL VENTURES CORP.
Farm: Brgy. Bugnay, San Nicolas, Ilocos Norte
(02) 914 2594 to 96/(02) 637 6899
GENTICO PROGRESO/ CENTRAL FARMS, INC. (PIC PHILIPPINES, INC.)
Farm: Hacienda Ma. Antonia, Brgy. Bulad, Isabela, Negros Occidental
(02) 914 2594 to 96/(02) 637 6899 (Mla. Office)
JAMARLI, INC. (JALTAS HOGS)
Farm: Bago City, Negros Occidental
(034) 434 1626/ 433 1599/(034) 433 1497
Farm: Brgy. Saguwa Banua, Valiadolid, Negros Occidental
(034) 434 8871 / (034) 461 1179/(034) 435 1525
WELLISA FARM (KANE’S BREEDING FARM)
Farm: Brgy. Mojon,Bantayan Island, Cebu
0917 308 8119
CECILIA STOCK FARMS, INC.
Farm: Prk. 1, Cacao, Panabo City, Davao del Norte
(02) 637 6899
PROGRESSIVE FARMS, INC.
Farm: Bo. Palian, Tupi, South Cotabato
(083) 228 5131/ (083) 816 5554/ 09399046867
DAVAO SUSANA FARM (SURICO, INC.)
Farm: Purok 4, Brgy. Sirawan, Toril, Davao City
CORAL AGRI VENTURE FARM, INC.
Office: 90 E. Rodriguez Jr. Ave., Ugong Norte, Murphy Libis, Quezon City
Farm: Bo.Road, Sitio Pantay Buhangin, Dalig Morong, Teresa, Rizal 1880
Ms. Annie Laylay 0917-773-1792
Ms. Teresita Pino 0917-546-2290
Ms. Grace Mata 0917 -499-7566 / 404-76-56
0917 577 7973 / 634 8387 loc 1636 / Fax no. 636 1837