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Hot Pepper

Description

hotpepperHOT PEPPER

Hot pepper (Capsicum Frutescens L.) or siling labuyo, is a perennial plant with small, tapering fruits, often 2-3, at a node. The fruits of most varieties are red, some are yellow purple or black. The fruits are very pungent. The flowers are greenish white or yellowish white.
(Source: Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD), DOST, Date accessed 21 March 2014)

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Cultural Management

 

Production Management

Climatic and Soil Requirements

Hot pepper can be grown from low to mid elevation throughout the year. Production is best, however, during the cool, dry months of October to March in sandy loam soil.

Seedling Production

Lines sow 200-250 g of seeds in a seedbed prepared from a mixture of equal parts of animal manure, rice hull charcoal and soil. Make shallow lines spaced 10-15 cm apart. Water before and after sowing. Mulch with rice hull and straw. Provide partial shade. Water regularly. Harden the seedling one week before transplanting.

Land Preparation

For small areas, make plots 0.75-1 m wide for two-row/plot planting. In bigger areas, make furrows 0.5-0.75 m apart for single-row planting.
Apply basal fertilizer at 5-7 bags/ha 14-14-14 and 5-10 t/ha manure. Transplant at a spacing of 0.3-0.5 m between hills.

Transplanting

Hot pepper grows best under full sunlight although it can also tolerate partial shade.
Transplant raised beds 1 m wide and about 20-30 cm high.
The spacing between hills and rows is 30-50 cm with two rows in each bed.
Make holes in the beds and place a handful of compost or animal manure.
Place 1-2 seedlings in the hole and cover with soil, pressing lightly near the stem for maximum contact between roots and soil.
Water immediately after transplanting.
Hot pepper can also be grown in clay pots, cans, and plastic bags. It can be treated as an ornamental if maintained properly.

Fertilization

Hot pepper responds well to inorganic fertilizer. However, animal manure and compost are better sources of nutrients. Another alternative is to grow hot pepper around basket composts.

Irrigation

Apply water once a week or as needed. Watering is needed in container-grown plants. Mulching in both plots and containers can cut watering by at least 50%. Grasses, paper, sawdust, manure and plastic sheets can be used for mulching.
Apply water once a week or as needed. Watering is needed in container-grown plants. Mulching in both plots and containers can cut watering by at least 50%. Grasses, paper, sawdust, manure and plastic sheets can be used for mulching.

Pest and Disease Management

• The main diseases of hot pepper are bacterial wilt and viruses.

• Bacterial wilt is soil borne and difficult to control.

• Wilting in fully-grown plants is usually due to bacterial wilt.

• Grow in containers with sterilized soil instead. Viruses are systemic, so pull out and bury infected plants (mosaic, leaf curling, fern-like leaves) to prevent spread of diseases through insect vectors.

• The major insect pests of pepper are thrips, mites, armyworm, fruit fly and shoot borers.

Thrips is a problem during the dry season and can be managed by overhead irrigation.
Removing damaged fruits and shoots can manage shoot and fruit borer.

Harvesting

• Harvesting mature green or fully ripened red fruits.

• Pack in plastic crates, cartons, or bamboo crates lined with banana leaves.

• Seeds can also be extracted from the red fruits.

• Air-dry and sun-dry seeds for 3-5 days.

• Place in plastic bags or clear bottles, seal and store in a cool, dry place or inside the refrigerator.

• Label properly to indicate variety and date of harvest.

 Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed: 21 March 2014