Cattle fattening has gained prominence as an important business project of the livestock industry in the Philippines. It gives the farmer year-round work and provides him with extra income. He can make use of cheap, plentiful farm by-products such as corn stovers, rice straw, copra meal, rice bran and sugarcane tops, which ordinarily go to waste. Most importantly, it helps meet the urgent demand for high-protein foods in the Filipino diet.
Backyard cattle fattening or on a large scale can be profitably undertaken. It consists of buying healthy stock, feeding and fattening them for 120 to 180 days, and selling them at anytime of the year. Minimum space for housing is required: 1.5 to 2 sq. meters per head for a sheltered feeding area, and 5 meters per head for a fenced loafing area.
(Source: Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014)
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Types of Cattle-Raising
1. Cow-calf Operation
In a cow-calf operation, cows and bulls are raised to produce calves which are raised until they are weaned from their dams at seven (7) to eight (8) months of age. After weaning, they can be sold immediately, or raised for a few more months for use as replacement stocks or sold for fattening.
The cow-calf operation is considered most challenging because the breeder needs to be familiar with the reproductive cycle, management practices involved in the production and maintenance of cows, bulls and calves as well as breeding and feeding systems. A good animal health program should also be observed to minimize mortality and ensure the productivity of the animals.
2. Breeder Farm Operation
In a breeder farm operation, the main interest of the raisers is to produce animals for breeding purposes. There is a set of selection criteria for calves and they are raised until they are ready for breeding.
Since the main output of a breeder farm is quality breeding animals, a large herd is necessary for the selection of the replacement stocks. Purebred animals are usually utilized in this type of operation. The breeder farm can be maintained in the ranch, in complete confinement, or integrated with plantation and forest trees. The farm requires a number of animal stock, a big space and a big capital.
3. Growing-Fattening Operation
This is the most popular type of cattle raising in the Philippines. It requires simple facilities and level of management. The lifespan of operation is shorter and the return of investment is relatively higher.
Growing cattle can be raised through grazing or cut-and-carry feeding. Thus, it needs little capital so it can be managed by smallhold cattle raisers.
On the other hand, the fattening or finishing stage is usually done intensively or in confinement. The animals are kept within an area so that the feeds given to them are utilized to develop their tissues.
Improved breeds and crossbreds gain weight faster than native animals. Tropical breeds are more adaptable to local climatic and feed conditions than temperate breeds. Some of the recommended tropical breeds are:
Color is gray, some are reddish. This breed is resistant to diseases and can withstand heat better.
2. Ongle or Nellore
Color is white. The bulls may have dark gray head, neck and hump. Knees may be black.
Colors vary from light to silver gray and brownish dark gray to red.
4. Batangas Cattle
This is not really distinct breed of cattle in the Philippines. Cattle fattened in Batangas comes from Mindoro, Masbate and other provinces. The term Batangas beef has become popular because of the good quality cattle produced by the "supak" method of Batangas.
Management of Calves
Calves should suckle colostrum milk from their mother within three (3) hours after calving. A calf that has not suckled five (5) to six (6) hours after calving should be led to his mother's udder.
During bad weathers, weak calves should be taken to the barn with the mother. However, orphaned calves may be raised to cow's milk or milk replacers. Calves should be given concentrates at an early age for faster growth.
Management of Growers
Growers are weaned yearlings which are not to be fattened immediately. They are handled in such a way that maximum growth is achieved at the lowest possible cost. The growing period starts from weaning to fattening or replacement stage. Growers are usually maintained in the pasture with very little attention; they are given salt and mineral supplements. If raised in confinement, concentrates should be given in addition to grass or roughage.
Management of Fatteners
Fatteners require a shorter period to reach slaughter weight. They are generally bigger, mature, or nearing maturity. However, one and a half to two-year old animals weighing 200 to 300 kg are preferred. They may be fattened either in feedlot, on pasture, or in both areas.
Proper housing is important in successful cattle fattening operation. Adequately protect animals against the adverse effects of weather when they are raised in relatively small areas. Animals in backyard cattle farms are usually tethered along roadsides and in backyards during the day and confined in a shed or corral at night. The permanent type of housing consisting of GI roofing, timber frames, concrete floor, feed trough and water troughs are used in most farms. The shelter is open-sided and is located near the farmer's house or under the shade trees. Building height ranges from 1.79 to 1.9 meters while the width varies from 2.1 to 2.7 meters. Each animal can be allocated with 1.5 to 4.5 sq. meters.
A fenced loafing area beside the goat house must be provided (100 to 150 sqm/250 head), complete with feeding racks and water troughs to allow animals to loaf freely. Flooring of the area must be cemented to facilitate drying. Cogon and nipa as roof materials are preferred in hot and humid areas.
Ventilation is of outmost importance. Majority of pneumonia cases can be traced to excessively warm and humid interior and sudden changes in temperature. Allow a 0.5 to 1 feet clearance between floor to wall and wall to beam to create an adequate circulation and to lower draft. It is desirable to maintain an interior temperature of 28 to 30°C. It has been established that above 30°C ruminants are inhibited from eating.
Lighting may also be provided in the barns during the night. Goats consume up to 30% of the day's intake during the night when light is provided.
1. Housing System for Cow-calf Operation
Cow-calf operation in smallhold farms is usually done using simple methods and facilities. The animals are usually tethered during the day and kept inside the shed during the night. The shed is built from native materials like wood and bamboo frames and enclosures; nipa and cogon for roofings. Feeding and watering troughs can also be made out of locally available materials such as used tires, used and halved drums. The shed is usually built near the house of the farmer.
2. Housing System for Fattening Operation
In this type of operation, the animals are raised in individual stalls with a space about 1.5 m x 4 m/head. Each stall can accommodate one animal during the entire fattening period. The shed is built three (3) meters high to allow good ventilation. Bamboo, lumber, or ipil-ipil poles can be used for frames; nipa or cogon for roofing materials although galvanized iron roofing may be used for durability. Concrete and sand should be used as flooring to prevent mud from accumulating. This will facilitate cleaning.
Selecting Cows and Heifers for Breeding
1. Milking Ability and Feminity
A cow should have a mild maternal face with bright and alert eyes, good disposition, and quiet temperament. Its udder is of good size and shape, soft, flexible and spongy to touch. This characteristic is expected to secrete more milk unlike an udder that is fleshlike and hard.
In general, beef cows remain productive for 13 years if they start calving at three years of age. They are most productive from four to eight years of age.
3. Breeding Ability and Ancestry
Cows that calve regularly are desirable. Calves from cows that do not take on flesh readily do not give much profit. In buying heifers for foundation stock, select those which belong to families which have regularly produced outstanding calves.
4. Types and Conformation
An ideal cow has a rectangular frame. Should be of medium width between the thurls and pins to have necessary frame on which to hang profitable beef. The rump must be long and smooth.
Selecting a Bull
1. Physical Appearance
A fairly good middle or barrel indicates a well-developed digestive system and healthy vital organs such as the heart, liver and lungs. Likewise, a full heart girth, broad muzzle, large nostrils, muscular cheeks and jaw, well-rounded thighs and a full loin, make up a good constitution. A bull with these qualities is desirable.
The legs of a bull should be strong enough to carry its own weight and to carry him around to look for cows that are in heat and to search for food when necessary. Successful mating of cows is ensured when a bull has strong legs.
2. Sex Character
Well-developed sex organs are characterized by fully descended testicles, deep wide chest, and broad head. These qualities indicate virility and good reproduction.
Selecting Cattle for Fattening
Young animals have striking advantages over older cattle. They need less feed for every unit gain in weight because they can masticate and ruminate thoroughly and can consume more feed in proportion to their body weight. Their increase in weight is due partly to the growth of muscles and vital organs. In older cattle the increase is largely due to fat deposits.
On the other hand, older animals as feeder stock also have advantages. Generally, a two-year old steer will require a shorter feeding period than a calf or a yearling because the latter grows while it fattens.
Calves are choosy when given coarse and stemmy roughage, while two-year old steers utilize large quantities of roughage to produce fat primarily because they have a better capacity to digest. In most cases, they readily relish the feeds ordinarily rejected by the calves.
An active yet mild, quiet, and easily-handled steer usually grows fast and fattens easily. Restless, nervous and erratic cattle waste too much energy when they panic even at the slightest provocation.
3. Constitution and Vigor
These are determined by the size and quality of the vital organs. A large feeding capacity, strong appetite, a large heart girth, well-sprung ribs and a wide, deep and full chest show good constitution and vigor.
In general, more steers than heifers are available for fattening because some heifers must be retained as herd replacements.
If fed for the same period of time, steers gain about 10% faster than heifers and require 10 to 15% less feeds with equal weight gain. On the other hand, young bulls have 20% greater gain in live weight and require 22% less feed to produce a leaner carcass which is nearly of the same quality as that of steers.
5. Health Considerations
A healthy animal is active, has a soft and smooth hair coat, bright eyes and moist muzzle. Special attention should be given to unsoundness and defects in conformation when selecting feeders. Animals that are blind, lame or with crooked legs, rough skin, and evidence of ectoparasite should be avoided.
BreedingDoes reach puberty from 4 to 18 months. Best breeding age will be 10 to 12 months, depending on desired weight. Limit yearling buck services to 25 doe services/year. Older bucks can cover up to 75/year. Buck to doe ratio is 1:25.
Reproductive Characteristics of Goats:
Signs of Heat or Estrus:
- Mucus discharge from the vulva, causing matting of tail hair.
- Uneasiness, constant urination, lack of appetite and bleating.
- Seeks out or stays near the buck and lets herself be mounted.
When breeding, always introduce the doe to the buck, not to the doe herd particularly when bucks have not been used for a long time. It will be dangerous to mix the buck with an herd of pregnant does for they will breed indiscriminately. Two or four breedings during the heat period will suffice.
It is highly impractical if not economical to raise pure breed goats, unless the main purpose is to sell breeders. The preferred method will be to upgrade local native or grade does with pure bucks. Crossbreeds usually perform better than pure ones under local conditions. Infusion of two or more bloodlines into the native doe will elicit a better product due to hybrid vigor. Three-way crosses between the native, any of three Occidental breeds and the Nubian has produced a greatly superior animal than any of the three under our conditions.
Higher milk production should be the main consideration for it will not only mean bigger kid but also more milk for human consumption. A maximum infusion of 75% foreign bloodline must be observed to retain the natural resistance of the native. Never practice inbreeding unless fully knowledgeable in breeding techniques. On the other hand, intensive culling especially in milking herds, will largely be beneficial.
Dystocia is very common in crossing natives with large pure breeds due to the invariably large size of the unborn kids. Crossbreed birthweights of up to four (4) kilos for multiple births and up to six (6) kilos for single births have been observed while native birthweights reach only 2 to 4 kilos for multiple and single births, respectively. Thus, in crossbreeding, large native does with a minimum weight of 25 kilos or more and those that have given birth at least once, should be used. Providing human assistance during birth will also be of help in saving kids, but this should be done only when necessary.
Anestrus or failure to come in heat, is a common problem most particularly with high-producing does. Vitamin, mineral and other nutrient deficiencies, infections of the genital tract and hormone deficiencies are some of the various and implants and pregnant mare serum (PMS have been used with varying rates of success.
Routine administration of oxytocin right after kidding and before weaning (5 days) aids in faster expulsion of the placenta, uterine fluids and in the rapid regression of the uterus. Routine Vitamin A, D and E injections to breeding herds also contribute to reproductive well being.
Fifty percent of breeding problems can be traced to the buck used. Routine check up of the bucks' health condition, especially of the genito-urinary tract, should be done. Preputial scraping, blood tests and sperm motility tests are some very useful procedures to follow in successful buck management. Always consult a trained veterinarian to do these tests.
Procedures in Artificial Insemination
1. Keep the semen warm for it is extremely temperature sensitive and will be irrevocably damaged if improperly handled. Never allow the temperature of semen thawed in 95°F water to drop below 80°F. If at all possible, perform your insemination in a heated environment. Thoroughly pre-warm the inseminating gun before inserting the straw. If no heated facility is available, use a heating pad or hot water bottle to keep the semen and related equipment at the proper temperature before use.
2. Inseminate at the proper time, as most successful inseminators agree that conception rates are generally highest when breeding during the later third of standing heat. In our experience, breeding a doe approximately 6 – 10 hours before she goes out of standing heat has yielded the best results. During the main part of the breeding season and with most does, this means breeding approximately 24-30 hours after the onset of estrus.
3. Always deposit semen deep intracervically by measuring the depth of penetration of the breeding gun. After passing through several cervical rings, place a clean breeding sheath in the speculum alongside the gun with its tip against the back wall of the does' vagina. Compare the difference between the length of the two breeding sheaths. Ideal depth of penetration is approximately 1 ½ inches.
4. Use only one straw per breeding as research in goat production indicates that sperm cells introduced into the does' reproductive tract tend to form "colonies" in the mucous present in the folds of the cervix. After undergoing a short maturation process, they migrate in fairly constant number from the cervix into the uterus and ultimately on to the oviduct, where union of the egg actually occurs. Quantities of viable sperm cells sufficient for adequate fertilization should remain in the reproductive tract for up to 18 hours after the first insemination.
The use of a second straw of semen later in heat can cause a disruption in the orderly migration of mature sperm cells from the colonies already established in the cervix and actually reduces the chance of conception.
5. Avoid attempting to AI does who remain in standing heat longer than 48 hours for reasons not fully understood, does exhibiting extremely lengthy standing estrus generally fail to conceive when artificially inseminated. Abnormally long heats are more common early in the breeding season, and occur more frequently in some areas than others. Fortunately in most cases the condition is transitory and most does begin to exhibit more normal estrus behavior as the breeding season progresses.
6. Use of hormones to synchronize does, though successful and useful, may result in lowered conception rates. Many breeders have reported disappointing AI conception rates after having used hormones to induce estrus in goats. If it is necessary to synchronize a group of does in this way, wait until the first natural heat after the drug induced estrus before artificially inseminating. Be aware that the use of prostaglandins may cause erratic estrus behavior in some animals, which can persist for several months.
7. Deposit semen very slowly because rapid expulsion of semen from the breeding gun can damage sperm cells and cause irritation of the does' reproductive tract. Count to fifteen very slowly while depressing the plunger on the breeding gun.
8. Don't haul a doe in heat to have her bred via AI. If you do not have your own equipment or storage tank and must transport your does to have them bred, plan to board them several days before they are due to come into heat. It is probably preferable if you cannot breed your own does yourself to have an AI technician come to your farm to perform the insemination. You can do your own inseminating even if you do not own your own tank. Small quantities of semen can be transported and stored for a half day or longer in a stainless steel thermos bottle. Make sure that you do not screw the lid onto the thermos as possible rupture can occur as a result of nitrogen gas pressure.
9. For best conception rates, inseminate only does with regularly occurring heats and no history of breeding or kidding problems. Does that are difficult to settle by natural service are not good AI candidates. Proper nutritional management also pays a big role in reproductive efficiency. Does that are overly fat or thin are less than ideal prospects for AI breeding. Virgin does should present no problem so long as they weigh at least 75 lbs.
10. Don't attempt to AI a doe on her first heat cycle of the season – the first heat cycle of the year is often infertile and is frequently followed by a second heat 5 to 8 days later. Conception rates will usually be higher if you wait until the second or later heats to do your breeding. Likewise, conception rates may drop off if you attempt AI towards the very end of the normal breeding season.
11. Watch your does carefully 17 to 22 days after breeding them by AI for some reason that some does who conceive by AI experience a false heat three weeks later. Although they may exhibit otherwise typical estrus behavior, such does will seldom allow a buck to mount them. If in doubt, submit a milk or blood sample to a testing laboratory for a progesterone assay.
12. Keep detailed records of your AI breeding. Note such factors as color and consistency of cervical mucous, depth and relative difficulty or cervical penetration, length of standing heat both before and after inseminating, weather conditions, time required to complete the insemination, and other pertinent information. These records will often be of great help in explaining why some does settle and others did not.
13. Know your does. Chart the heat cycles of each of your animals on a calendar. Observe them at least three times daily during the breeding seasons for signs of estrus behavior. Note the number of hours that each does remains in standing heat, and the relative intensity of estrus activities such as flagging, fighting and mounting other does.
14. Observe proper sanitary procedures. Specula should be thoroughly washed and sanitized between use. Scrub the doe's external genitalia with soap and water and dry completely before inserting the speculum. Do not use iodine-based products, as iodine is spermicidal. Take care not to touch the part of the speculum or breeding sheath which is inserted in the doe's vagina.
15. Attend an AI school. Attendance at an AI school taught by a competent and knowledgeable instructor can increase your chances of success with AI. As with any other acquired skill, hands-on experience is the best way to develop the confidence and correct techniques necessary to use AI effectively.
16. Do your homework. Artificial insemination is only a tool, albeit a powerful one. To be really successful with AI, you have to do more than just put kids on the ground. Only through intelligent selection of sires compatible with the objectives of a carefully thought out breeding program can AI benefit you, the breeder, or the meat and dairy goat industry.
Feeding Management Practices
1. Feed animals daily with concentrate one to two kilograms per day during fattening period. Give roughage daily at 3% of body weight if given air dry or 14% if given fresh.
2. Give clean water without limit or ad libitum. Provide ordinary table salt about 30-50 grams per head per day.
3. Give the animals fresh, palatable feed and clean water at all times. Reduction of feed intake by 5 percent will reduce weight gain by 10 percent. Do not overstock feeds in the feedbunk since the bottom portion will develop heat and make the feed stale.
4. Mix feed properly. Have at least 15-20 percent roughage in feed to prevent bloat and other digestive disorders.
5. During rainy days, cattle will eat more during the daytime. During summer, they will eat more at night and during the cooler hours. Provide enough feeds during these periods.
6. Digestion will be more efficient if roughage is eaten separately from concentrates. Roughage consumption tends to stimulate saliva secretion up to as much as 80-120 liters per day.
7. Providing 12-14 inches of bunk space per head will allow cattle to eat slowly.
8. Schedule manure removal. If allowed to remain with the animals, deep, wet manure will reduce both feed intake and weight gain.
Diseases and Care Practices1. Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
Enterovirus of major strains –A, O & C
Transmission: Direct contact with sick animals excreting the virus. Indirect transmission by ingestion of contaminated feeds. Contact with infected products and animal excretion by inhalation
High fever, Depression, Appearance of vesicles and blisters with fluid on tongue, gums, udders and interdigital spaces
Animal refuses to eat, Becomes lame and refuses to stand
Regular FMD vaccination every 6 months in areas where the disease is common
2. Hemorrhagic Septicemia
Common bacterial disease characterized by hemorrhage (escape of blood from the blood vessels) and septicemia (a condition manifested by the generalized presence of pathogenic bacteria and the associated poisons in the blood). The disease is rapid in onset and runs a relatively short course.
Direct contact with infected animals, Ingestion of contaminated feedstuffs by aerosol
Sudden increase in body temperature (41-42°C), Profuse salivation, Severe depression,Development of hot, painful swelling on the throat, dewlap, Difficulty in breathing, and Development of signs of pulmonary alimentary involvement in the later stages.
Isolate and quarantine infected premises, Promptly dispose of carcasses of dead animals by burning or burying in soil, Segregate sick animals and treat them with antibiotics, Vaccinate apparently healthy and unexposed animals, Sterilize and disinfect used instruments and equipment.
Anthrax is a peracute disease characterized by septicemia and sudden death with the exudation of tarry blood from the natural body openings. It is a disease virtually of all warm-blooded animals, including man.
Direct Contact (spread form one animal to another, wherein the bacili are excreted in the urine, feces, saliva and from the natural body openings contaminating the area), Ingestion, Indirect transmission through airborne via respiratory tract (inhalation) or vector borne through stable files and mosquitoes
Caused by large, gram-positive, aerobic spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracic. In cultures, forms long chains which, unstained, appear as solid filaments because the square ends of the individual cells fit very closely together. Under low magnification, the margin of the colonies which lie in parallel formation look like locks of hair. It is for this reason that they are sometimes described as "Medusa head" colonies.
Peracute form (1-2 hours), Sudden death, Unclotted blood comes out from the natural openings, Acute form (24-48 hours), Depression, Fever, Difficulty in breathing, Loss of appetite, Swelling in hind quarters, Hemorrhage in many parts of the body, Death, Diarrhea stained with unclotted blood coming from the natural body openings, Chronic form (48 hours or more), Swelling (ventral muscle, throax, shoulder), Edema
Control by immunization, Proper disposal of dead animal by burning or deep burial. Quicktime should be used to cover the body before covering with soil. The depth should be 2 meters. Decontamination of all contaminated pens, feeding materials, beddings, etc. Avoid contact with infected animals and contaminated animal by-products, Reduce movement of animals, Quarantine infected areas, Practice environmental and personal hygiene, Control insects and flies, Notify the proper authority in case of outbreak
Technology Option : UREA – MOLASSES Mineral BlockUMMB or Urea-Molasses Mineral Block is a food supplement for cows, carabaos, sheep and goats. This is a block containing a mixture of urea, molasses or honey, cement, rice bran, vitamin and mineral such as di-calcium phosphate and salt.
Feeding UMMB is considered as one of the most important way to lessen the loss of essential and substantial food for animals especially in the warm months of the year. UMMB gives energy or heat, minerals and protein needed by animals to increase milk production.
UMMB is rich in:
- Mineral – contains elements such as calcium, phosphorous, iodine, zinc, copper and other minerals that are not naturally found in grass. These minerals are important for growth, reproduction and milk production.
- Protein – UMMB gives up to 50% protein needed by animals for growth. The mineral content of UMMB also helps in increasing milk production.
- Energy – UMMB gives 45% energy needed by animals to increase production of meat and milk.
Steps in making UMMB:
- Prepare and weigh ingredients according to proper proportions:
- Prepare the mixing pot. Use a cook ware with a wide mouth like a vat. Old tires can be used a support to the vat.
- Pour honey into the vat. Slowly add urea while slowly stirring the mixture. Make sure there are no lumps of urea in the mixture.
- Add di-calcium phosphate and salt, stirring should be continuous.
- Add cement and continue stirring.
- Rice bran should be added last. In this case, its better to use hand in mixing or a cement mixer to mix the ingredients thoroughly.
- Pour the mixture into molds to form the blocks. Each bloke may weigh 1 to 5 kilos each.
- Wrap each block with plastic and arrange in a box. Wait for 1 to 2 weeks before feeding the block to the animals.
Method of Feeding:
UMMB is fed through "licking" of the animals. Feeding is not difficult since UMMB tastes good to the animals. Place and leave the UMMB in the animal feeder until animals get their daily nutrition needs.
Some Warning when Feeding UMMB:
- Prevent the block from getting wet thereby feeding the animals in excess.
- Don't give UMMB to animals that are not more than six months and to those animals that are in their last trimester of pregnancy
- Don't give UMMB when animals are hungry or when the waterer is empty.
- Call a veterinary when symptoms of poisoning are evident like salivating, difficulty in breathing, and bloating.
Other Characteristics of UMMB:
- Helps in increasing appetite
- Increases the ability to dissolve grass fibers and other feed eaten by the animals.
- Maintains the energy and health of animals.
Source: Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014
5A CATTLE BREEDING FARM (nucleus)
Office: 198 M. Paterno St., San Juan, Metro Manila
Farm: Patiis Road, Malanday, San Mateo, Rizal
0917 848 8644
BONDOC PENINSULA (AF CATTLE RANCH) (commercial)
Office: Welcome 1, Poblacion, San Andres, Quezon
Farm: Gapas, San Andres, Quezon
Mr. Alberto Fernandez/ Anatalio Asugao
0918 587 5966
ANSA GENETIC INC. (nucleus)
Office: 15 Abelardo St., San Lorenzo Village, Makati City
Farm: Brgy. San Isidro, Lipa City, Batangas
Mr. Edwin C. Sanchez
0917 690 2545/ 817 5259
ED RANCH (commercial)
Office: Matungao, Masbate City
Farm: Bangad, Milagros, Masbate
Jeenalyn B. Du
056-582 1136/ 0917-517 7777/0917 790 7777
FORTUNA BRAHMANS-FAVIS DEVELOPMENT & MANAGEMENT CORPORATION (nucleus)
Office: 17 Winners Circle, NSHA, BF Homes, Paranaque
Farm: Tigbao, Milagros, Masbate
Mr. Adrian Favis
0920 926 5411/ 807 8683
JOLISA AGRIBUSINESS CORPORATION (nucleus)
Office: P.O. Box3, SMC 4 compound, National H-way, Apopong, Gen. Santos City
Farm: Brgy. Sirawal Gen. Santos City
Mr. Joven K. Chua
PESO FARM (multiplier)
Farm: Brgy. Silangan Sta. Maria, Bulacan
Dr. Camilo I. Porcincula
0917 835 8473/ 912 9294/ 912 9229
QBB AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK AND SERVICES (commercial)
Farm: Mactan, Uson, Masbate
Queenie B. Buenaventura
056- 588 0509
SARANGANI AGRICULTURAL COMPANY, INC. (nucleus)
Farm: SACI Compound, Maribulan Alabel, Sarangani Province