Mussel farming does not require highly sophisticated techniques compared to other aquaculture technologies. Even un-skilled laborers, men, women, and minors can be employed in the preparation of spat collectors as well as harvesting. Locally available materials can be used, hence minimum capital investment is required. The mussel harvest can be marketed locally and with good prospects for export.

The cultivation of mussels has taken various forms in different countries of the world. However, as in all farming procedures, it requires careful consideration of environmental, ecological and seasonal factors, in order to ensure proper growth and survival of the stock through harvest. (Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 25 March 2014)


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Cultural Management


Criteria for Site Selection

Site Selection
In prospecting sites for mussel cultivation, well-protected or sheltered coves and bays are preferred than open un-protected areas. Sites affected by strong wind and big waves could damage the stock and culture materials and, therefore, must be avoided. Another important consideration is the presence of natural mussel spatfall. Areas serving as catchment basins for excessive floodwaters, during heavy rains, would not be selected. Flood waters would instantly change the temperature and salinity of the seawater, which is detrimental to the mussel.
Sites accessible by land or water transportation are preferred so that culture materials and harvests can be transported easily.

Water Quality
Areas rich in plankton, usually greenish in color, should be selected. Water should be clean and free from pollution. Sites near densely populated areas should not be selected in order to avoid domestic pollution. In addition, the culture areas should be far from dumping activities of industrial wastes and agricultural pesticides and herbicides. Waters too rich in nutrients, which m cause dinoflagellate blooms and render the mussels temporarily dangerous for human consumption, causing either gastro-intestinal troubles or sometimes paralytic poisoning, should be avoided. Water physio-chemical parameters are also important factors to be considered. The area selected should have a water temperature ranging from 27–30 °C, which is the optimum range required for mussel growth. Water salinity of 27–35 ppt is ideal. A water current of 17–25 cm per second during flood tide and 25–35 cm per second at ebb-tide should be observed. Favourable water depth for culture is 2 m and above, both for spat collection and cultivation

Bottom Type
Bottom consisting of a mixture of sand and mud has been observed to give better yields of mussel than firm ones. It also provides less effort in driving the stakes into the bottom. Shifting bottoms must be avoided.

Rate of Growth

The average growth rate of green mussels is 1cm a month, allowing it to reach the marketable size of 4-5 cm in 4-6 months. However, growth rates vary with the availability of food in the water. They can reach the length of 150 mm or more but adults generally average 50-60 mm in length


"Tahong" feeds by filtering the seawater around it. The foods are the plankton and phytoplankton present in the water. They eat by filtering a small amount of water, thus they are called filters-feeders (ciliary-mucoid feeders).

Culture Methods

Mussel culture, as practiced in many countries, is carried out by using a variety of culture methods based on the prevailing hydrographical, social and economic conditions.

Bottom Culture
Bottom culture as the name implies is growing mussels directly on the bottom (Fig. 1). In this culture system a firm bottom is required with adequate tidal flow to prevent silt deposition, removal of excreta, and to provide sufficient oxygen for the cultured animals. Mussel bottom culture is extensively practiced in The Netherlands, where the production of seeds is completely left to nature. If the natural spatfall grounds are unsatisfactory for growing, the seedlings are transferred by the farmer to safer and richer ground or to his private growing plots, until the marketable size is attained. Natural conditions control the quality and quantity of food in the water flowing over the farming plots. Marketable mussels are fished from the plots and undergo cleansing before being sold. This method requires a minimum investment. Disadvantages, however, of this type of culture is the heavy predation by oyster drills, starfish, crabs, etc. Also, siltation, poor growth and relatively low yields per unit culture area.


Intertidal and Shallow Water Culture
The culture methods that fall under this category are usually practiced in the intertidal zone. The culture facilities are set in such a way that the mussels are submerged at all times. Culture methods are:

Hanging Method
The process starts with the preparation of the spat collectors or cultches. Nylon ropes or strings, No. 4, are threaded with coco fibre supported by bamboo pegs or empty oyster shells at 10 cm intervals. These collectors are hung on horizontal bamboo poles at 0.5 m apart (Fig.2). A piece of steel or stone is attached at the end of the rope to prevent the collector to float to the surface. Setting of collectors is timed with the spawning season of the mussels. Spats collected are allowed to grow on the collectors until marketable size.
Other materials utilized as collectors are rubber sheets and strips from old tires.
Mussels are harvested by taking out from the water the ropes or strings and bringing them to the shore on a banca. The same collectors can be re-used after being cleaned of fouling organisms. Harvested mussels are cleansed of the dirt and mud by dipping the collectors several times in the water. The process maybe laborious, but the ease in harvesting and availability of local materials for culture purposes makes it very adaptable under local conditions.


Tray Culture
Tray culture of mussels is limited to detached clusters of mussels. Bamboo or metal trays, 1.5 m × 1 m × 15 cm sidings are used (Fig. 4). The tray is either hang between poles of the hanging or stake methods or suspended on four bamboo posts.






Wig-wam Culture
The wig-wam method requires a central bamboo pole serving as the pivot from which 8 full-length bamboo poles are made to radiate by firmly staking the butt ends into the bottom and nailing the ends to the central pole, in a wigwam fashion. The stakes are driven 1.5 m apart and 2 m away from the pivot. To further support the structure, horizontal bamboo braces are nailed to the outside frame above the low tide mark (Fig. 5). Spats settle on the bamboos and are allowed to grow to the marketable size in 8–10 months.
Mussels are harvested by taking the poles out of water, or in cases that there are plenty of undersized bivalves, marketable mussels are detached by divers.



Rope-Web Culture
The rope-web method of mussel culture was first tried in Sapian Bay, Capiz, in 1975 by a private company. It is an expensive type of culture utilizing synthetic nylon ropes, 12 mm in diameter. The ropes are made into webs tied vertically to bamboo poles. A web consists of two parallel ropes with a length of 5 m each and positioned 2 m apart. They are connected to each other by a 40 m long rope tied or fastened in a zigzag fashion at an interval of 40 cm between knots along each of the parallel ropes (Fig. 6). Bamboo pegs, 20 cm in length and 1 cm width are inserted into the rope at 40 cm interval to prevent sliding of the crop as it grows bigger.
In harvesting, the rope webs are untied and the clusters of mussels are detached.
The method is laborious and expensive, but the durability of the ropes which could last for several years might render it economical on the long run. However, the effect of the culture method on the culture ground is detrimental as gradual shallowing of the culture area has been observed up to the point that the areas become no longer suitable for mussel farming.


"Bouchot" Culture
"Bouchot" culture is mainly undertaken in France. This is also called the "pole culture" or stake culture. The poles, used are big branches or trunks of oak tree, 4–6 m in length, which are staked in rows, 0.7 m apart on soft and muddy bottoms of the intertidal zone during low tide.
Mussel seeds are collected on coco-fibre ropes which are stretched out horizontally on poles. Young adults, 3–5 mm in size are placed in long netlon tubes (10 m in length) and attached around the oak poles in a spiral fashion, until marketable size.

Raft Culture
Mussel raft culture has been practiced in Spain for a long time. Mussel seeds that settle freely on rocks or on rope collectors are suspended from a raft. When the weight of the bivalves on a given rope exceeds a certain limit, the rope is taken out and again distributed over a greater length until marketable size. It is a continuous thinning of the mussel stock to provide ample space to grow. Marketable shellfish are detached from the rope, purified in basins before marketing.

The raft may be an old wooden boat with a system of outrigger built around it. Other kinds of rafts could be a catamaran-type boat carrying some 1000 rope hangings, or just an ordinary plain wooden raft with floats and anchors (Fig. 7). Floats can be made of plastic, wood, oil drums, etc. The raft are transferred from one place to another using a motor boat.
Production of mussels from this type of culture is high. From a catamaran-type raft with 1,000 rope,6–9 m in length, about 4,666–5,333 MT of marketable mussel can be produced.
Advantages of this type of culture are: reduce predation, utilization of planktonic food at all levels of water, and minimum siltation.


Long Line Culture
Long-line culture is an alternative to raft culture in areas less protected from wave action. A long-line supported by a series of small floats joined by a cable or chain and anchored at the bottom on both end is employed. Collected mussel spats on ropes or strings are suspended on the line. The structure is fairly flexible.

Mussel Trasplantation to New Sites

Transplantation of young mussels from natural spawning grounds to sites with favourable conditions for growth is practiced in numerous countries as mentioned earlier. In the Philippines, however, mussel transplantation to new sites is being encouraged to develop new areas for mussel culture, due to various reasons. Major reasons are: rampant pollution of some existing mussel areas, urbanization growth near mussel farms and competitive use of lands.
Mussels to be transplanted could be breeders or young adults. Important points to be considered are: Conditions from natural spawning areas must be almost similar to the new area, mussels on original collectors showed better survival than those detached, and in transporting the mussel avoid being exposed to heat and freshwater.


Harvesters should be aware of the stress caused during the harvesting process. In harvesting mussels special care is needed. Pulling them or using a dull scraper may tear the byssal thread. This will result in loss of moisture after harvest or cause physical damage causing early death of the bivalve. The right procedure is to cut the byssal thread and leave it intact to the body. Exposure to sun, bagging and transport also increases the stress of the mussels.

Transportation and Marketing

The site should be near the market so that mussels can easily be transported there for sale because "tahong" meat is highly perishable and should be consumed as soon as possible after harvesting.

Source: Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 25 March 2014