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String Beans

Description

stringbeansSTRING BEANS

Sitaw in Tagalog or String Bean in English, but some people call it ''Snap Beans''. The yardlong bean is also known as the long-podded cowpea, asparagus bean, snake bean, or Chinese long bean. It is known as dau gok in Cantonese, thua fak yao in Thai and kacang panjang in Indonesian and Malay, sitaw Tagalog, bora in the West Indies and vali or eeril in Goa, India. Despite the name, the pods are actually only about half a yard long; the subspecies name sesquipedalis (one-and-a-half-foot-long) is a rather exact approximation of the pods' length. Yardlong beans are quick-growing and daily checking/harvesting is often a necessity. The crisp, tender pods are eaten both fresh and cooked. They are at their best when young and slender. They are sometimes cut into short sections for cooking uses. 
(Source: Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014)

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Cultural Management

 

Land Preparation

  1. Plow the field 2-3 times, each time followed by harrowing.
  2. Make furrows 1m apart before planting.
  3. Apply 2-3 tons dried animal manure per hectare while preparing the land.

Crop Establishment

Planting

  1. Sow 2-3 seeds per hill 30-40cm apart (10-12 kg of seeds are needed per hectare).
  2. Plant in furrows during dry season and in ridge during wet season.
  3. Cover the seed with a thin layer of fine soil.
  4. For every 2 rows planted, leave a furrow vacant to provide space for spraying, trellising and harvesting.

Trellising

  1. Construct a side trellis as soon as the seed germinates.
  2. Layout 2.5m long and 2-2.5cm wide ipil-ipil, bamboo, or kakawate poles 3-4 m apart within the rows.
  3. Connect the poles horizontally by wire (#16 or #18) at the top, middle and bottom portions in every row.
  4. Tie the top wire to the stakes at the end of the rows to make the poles stable.
  5. Cut abaca twine or synthetic straw and tie them vertically from the top to bottom wires in every hill.

Vine Training
Train the vines to cling to the trellis and by spreading them evenly across the trellis until they reach the top.

Water and Nutrient Management

Fertilizing
Apply 5 tons well decomposed manure per hectare while preparing the land to mix it thouroughly with the soil.
Before planting, apply 20g or 1tbsp of 14-14-14 in the hole and cover it with soil to prevent direct contact with the seed. This is equivalent to 5 bags per hectare.
Optional: Sidedress 2-3 bags of Urea (46-0-0) 1 month after planting. Use Rhizobium inoculant to minimize the use of chemical fertilizer.

Irrigation
Irrigate the field after planting and once a week using furrow irrigation during dry season. Construct a canal for furrow irrigation. During wet season, irrigate only when necessary. Construct a drainage canal.

Harvest Management

Harvest the pods 7-10 days after the flowers have dried up. Harvest every 2-4 days to prolong flowering at fruiting of the plants

Pollination/Isolation

  1. Highly self pollinated although cross-pollination occurs.
  2. Observe an isolation distance, or planting one variety away from another variety, of 20m for certified seed and 30-50m for breeder seeds.
  3. Flower opens early in the morning and never closes. Anthers dehisce the night before flower opens.

Roguing

  1. Remove off-types diseased and virus infected plants.
  2. Conduct field inspection as follows:
    • At vegetative stage, check the shape and color of the leaves, and foliage cover. Also check the color and size of the stem, and internode length.
    • At flowering stage, observe for the date of flowering, height of first flower, and color of the flower.
    • At fruiting stage, observe for the color and length of pod, and the length of pod stalk.

Harvesting

  1. Harvest pods when physiologically mature or when pods have turned leathery brown.
  2. It may be necessary to harvest 3 times a week at peak harvest.

Seed Processing

  1. Dry pods under the sun 2-3 days or until brittle
  2. Put dried pods in net bag and beat manually with stick or by rubbing and splitting by hand in the absence of threshing machine.
  3. Remove trash by winnowing or by passing through an air-screen cleaner.
  4. Sort out small and wrinkled seeds and seeds with holes.
  5. Dry under the sun for 4-5 days or until moisture content is 11% or less.

Packaging/Storage

  1. For home use, pack seeds in a thick plastic or paper envelopes and place in large aluminum cans or large-mouth jars lined at the bottom with charcoal, lime or silica gel and seal well. Place in a cool, dry place.
  2. For large volume seeds, pack seeds in thick plastics or aluminum foil and seal well. Keep in a cool and dry place or storage area.
  3. The drier are the stored seeds and the cooler is the storage area, the longer is the life of the seed.

Pest Management

Weeding

  • Remove the weeds around the plants 2 weeks fropm seedling emergence until fruiting stage.
  • Perform spot weeding.
  • Cut-off the weeds in between the rows by using a scythe.
  • Mulch with rice straw to control weeds and conserve soil moisture.

Insect Pests

  • Use insecticide only when needed.
  • Do not use insecticide with red or yellow lines when the plants begin to bear pods.
  • For pod borer and aphids, spray with native hot pepper.
  • For pod borer and aphids, spray with native hot pepper juice mixed with water (100g of pepper per 16 liters of water)

Diseases

  • Pull-out and burn or bury plants with virus so that it will not spread to healthy plants.
  • Prune diseased leaves at the lower portion of the plants
  • Spray the plants with chemicals only when necessary

Nutrient Management

Fertilizing:

Apply 5 tons well decomposed manure per hectare while preparing the land to mix it thouroughly with the soil.
Before planting, apply 20g or 1tbsp of 14-14-14 in the hole and cover it with soil to prevent direct contact with the seed. This is equivalent to 5 bags per hectare.
Optional: Sidedress 2-3 bags of Urea (46-0-0) 1 month after planting. Use Rhizobium inoculant to minimize the use of chemical fertilizer.

Irrigation:

Irrigate the field after planting and once a week using furrow irrigation during dry season.
Construct a canal for furrow irrigation.
During wet season, irrigate only when necessary. Construct a drainage canal.

Weeding

Remove the weeds around the plants 2 weeks from seedling emergence until fruiting stage.
Perform spot weeding.
Cut-off the weeds in between the rows by using a scythe.
Mulch with rice straw to control weeds and conserve soil moisture.

Pest and Disease Management

Insect Pests
Use insecticide only when needed.
Do not use insecticide with red or yellow lines when the plants begin to bear pods.
For pod borer and aphids, spray with native hot pepper.
For pod borer and aphids, spray with native hot pepper juice mixed with water (100g of pepper per 16 liters of water)

Diseases
Pull-out and burn or bury plants with virus so that it will not spread to healthy plants.
Prune diseased leaves at the lower portion of the plants
Spray the plants with chemicals only when necessary

Source: Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Agricultural Research, Date accessed 24 March 2014