BELL SWEET PEPPER
Sweet pepper (Capsium annuum L.) also known as capsium, kampana or lara is the most widely used condiment all over the world. It is consumed fresh, dried or processed. There are several types: green, yellow, orange, violet, and brown. Popular varieties are California Wonder (short bell) and Lanuyo (long bell). (Source: Department of Trade and Industry, Date accessed 24 March 2014)
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Climatic and Soil Requirements
Sweet pepper requires cool weather for best fruit quality. In low elevations, October to December planting is best. In mid and high elevations, it can be grown throughout the year.
Sweet pepper grows well in any type of soil with a pH of 5.5-6.5. Production is best, however, in sandy loam soil.
One hectare requires 100-200 g of seeds. It is best to produce in nurseries and transplant 3-4 weeks later. Prepare seedbeds by incorporating 2-4 kg of manure and 1-2 kg rice hull charcoal/m2. Prepare 1-m wide beds at any convenient length. Water first, and then make lines across the bed at 7-10 cm apart. Sow thinly if no pricking will be done. Cover lightly with manure and mulch with rice hull. In case of hybrid seeds, prick to nursery trays soon after germination. Provide temporary shade. Harden seedlings one week before transplanting.
Prepare the area thoroughly. For small areas, make plots 0.75-1m wide for two-row/plot planting. In bigger areas, make furrows 0.5-0.75 m apart for single row planting. Apply basal fertilizer at 5-7 bags/ha 14-14-14 and 5-10 t/ha manure. Transplant at a spacing of 0.3-0.5 m between hills.
Use mulch to control weeds and promote better growth. Rice hull, rice straw or plastic may be used. In the case of the latter, make beds 1-m wide and incorporate the required manure and fertilizer. Spread the mulch, covering the sides with soil. Make holes 0.5 m x 0.5 m apart.
Irrigate weekly. Weed 2-3 times during the growing season. It is best to intercrop other vegetables such as kutsai and garlic as well as marigold to help minimize incidence of insect pests.
Side-dress with urea (46-0-0) every two weeks at 5-10 g/hill depending on plant growth. At the onset of fruiting, use 1:1 mixture of 46-0-0 and 0-0-60.
Pests and Disease Management
|Aphids||Intercropping: hot pepper spray or organophosphate|
|Spider mites||Intercropping: spray with miticide|
|Hot pepper spray: Bacillus thuringiensis|
|Sanitation: fruit fly attractant|
|Fruit & shoot borer||Sanitation: hot pepper spray,|
|Bacterial wilt||Sanitation: use of resistant variety, avoidance|
|Nematodes||Application of chicken manure; intercropping with marigold|
|Anthracnose||Crop rotation; Sanitation: spray with Benlate|
|Leaf spot diseases||Sanitation: spray with Mancozeb, Benlate|
|Virus disease||Refrain from smoking in the vicinity; roughing|
1. Thrips (Thrips tabaci)
Nature of damage: Thrips attack the upper and lower side of the leaves by sucking the sap. Areas near the mid-vein are brown and dried up. The major damage occurs on the undersides of new or old leaves.
Pest Management: Use of chemical is still the most effective method of control
2. Aphids (Aphids gossypil)
Nature of Damage: Young and adults feed on underside of leaves by sucking the sap. Leaves becomes distorted, stunted and often curled under. The upper leaf surface is sticky and has a black moldy growth.
Pest Management: Botanical pesticides/compounds may be tried such as neem extract and water.
3. Broad Mite (Polyhagotarsonemus latus)
Nature of damage: Direct feeding of leaves of pepper causes the leaves to become distorted and curled downwards. Young leaves are cupped downward and narrower than normal.
Pest Management: Botanical pesticides/compounds may be tried such as neem extract and water, or madre de cacao, oil and water.
4. Tomato fruit worm
Nature of damage: A small darkened partially healed hole at the base of the fruit is evident. The inside of the fruit has a cavity that contains frass and decay. Often, the caterpillar can be seen inside the fruit.
Pest Management: Chemicals such as Methomyl and mimic can be used.
1. Bacterial Wilt
Nature of damage: The first symptom of the disease is wilting of some of the younger leaves or slight yellowing of the lower leaves. If such plants are pulled out, the roots and lower part of the stem which appears normal on the outside will show burning of the water conducting tissue under the back of the stem and water socked appearances of the roots.
Disease Management: Avoid using compost and manure contaminated with bacterial organism. appears in order to reduce the sources of infection.
2. Anthracnose of Pepper
Nature of damage: Anthractose may occur in the field and develop as a post-harvest decay of pepper fruits. Typical symptons appear on mature fruits such as small water-soaked sunken lesions that expand rapidly. Lesions may be covered with raised, dark, fungal tissues which may appear in concentric rings.
Disease Management: Be sure to clean seeds. Practice crop rotation. Fungicides like Mancozeb or Benomyl may be used.
3. Cercospora Leaf Spot
Nature of damage: Early symptoms appear as small, circular, water-soaked spots on leaves which later enlarge up to 1 cm or more in diameter. Typical lesions are brown and circular with small to large light gray centers and dark brown margins. Several spots may coalesce causing the entire leaf to turn yellow and drop without yellowing.
Disease Management: Collect and burn all leaves and stems.
Harvesting and Post Harvest
Start harvesting at 80-100 days from transplanting or 3-6 weeks after flowering. Harvest mature green fruits.
Sort fruits according to market standard and separate damaged fruits. Fresh fruits can be stored up to 5 weeks at 40C and 95% humidity.
Source: Department of Trade and Industry, Date accessed 24 March 2014